Chapter 8 - Cardiorespiratory Fitness Training Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Cardiorespiratory Fitness Training Deck (52):
1

Cardiorespiratory Fitness

The ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen-rich blood to skeletal muscles during sustained physical activity

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5 Components of Health-Related Physical Fitness

-CR Fitness
-Muscular Strength
-Muscular Endurance
-Flexibility
-Body Composition

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Integrated Cardiorespiratory Training

CR training programs that systematically progress clients through various stages to achieve optimal levels of physiologic, physical, and performance adaptations by placing stress on the CR system

4

Rate of Progression

Critical to helping clients achieve their person health and fitness goals in the most efficient and effective use of time and energy

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3 Phases in Each Exercise Training Session

warm-up, conditioning, cool-down phase

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Warm-Up and Cool-Down Times

Typically 5-10 minutes

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General Warm-Up

Low-intensity exercise consisting of movements that do not necessarily relate to the more intense exercise that is to follow

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Specific Warm-Up

Low-intensity exercise consisting of movements that mimic those that will be included in the more intense exercise to follow

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Warm-Up Purpose

-Increase HR and respiration rates
-Increase tissue temp.
-Psychologically prepare individual

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Warm-Up for Stabilization Level Client

Self-myofascial release, static stretching, CR exercise

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Warm-Up for Strength Level Client

Self-myofascial release, active-isolated stretching, CR exercse

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Warm-Up for Power Level Client

Dynamic, functional warm-up
-self-myofascial release, dynamic stretching

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Cool-Down Phase

Provides the body with a smooth transition from exercise back to a steady state of rest

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Cool-Down Phase Purpose

-Reduce HR and breathing rates
-Gradually cool body temp.
-Return muscles to their optimal length-tension relationships
-Prevent venous pooling of blood into lower extremities
-Restore physiologic systems close to baseline

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Suggested Cool-Down Activities

Corrective Stretching (self-myofascial release and static stretching) and low-intensity CR exercise

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Static Stretching and When

-Statically stretch tight or overactive muscles in warm-up and major muscles used during workout in the cool-down

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Individual Responses to Exercise

Are highly variable

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FITTE Principle

-Frequency
-Intensity
-Type
-Time
-Enjoyment

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Frequency

The number of training sessions in a given time period

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General Health Requirement Recommendations

-150 minutes per week of Moderate Intensity aerobic activity (40-60% of VO2R , 55-70% of HRmax)

-75 minutes per week of vigourous-intensity aerobic activity (+60% of VO2R, +70% of HRmax)

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Intensity

The level of demand that a given activity places on the body

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7 Methods for Prescribing Exercise Intensity

-Peak VO2 Method
-VO2 Reserve Method
-Peak Metabolic Equivalent (MET) Method
-Peak Maximal Heart Rate (MHR) Method
-HR Reserve (HRR) Method
-Ratings of Perceived Exertion Method (RPE)
-Talk Test Method

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Maximal Oxygen Consumption (VO2max)

The highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion

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Peak VO2 Method

VO2max, or the maximal volume of oxygen per kg body weight per minute
-The maximal amount of oxygen that an individual can use during intense exercise
-Often impractical to measure without the use of expensive and sophisticated equipment

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Oxygen Uptake Reserve (VO2R)

The difference between resting and maximal or peak oxygen consumption

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VO2 Reserve Method

Target VO2R = [(VO2max - VO2rest) X Intensity Desired] + VO2rest

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VO2 Rest

Usually predicted at 1 MET or 3.5 mL O2 X kg^-1 X min^-1

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Target VO2R EX

25 YO Client, VO2max of 35, Desired Intensity between 70-85%

[(35 - 3.5) X .70] + 3.5 = 25.55

[(35 - 3.5) X .85] + 3.5 = 30.28

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ACSM Training Intensity Recommendation

40 or 50 - 85% of VO2R or HRR

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One MET Equivalence

3.5 mL O2 X kg^-1 X min^-1
-Equivalent of the average resting metabolic rate (RMR) for adults

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MET Purpose

Used to describe the energy cost of physical activity as multiple of RMR
-MET values are used to relate exercise intensity with energy expenditure

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Physical Activity with MET Value of 4

Requires 4 times the energy that the person consumes at rest

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Peak Maximal Heart Rate (MHR) Method

HRmax = (220 - Age)
-Should never use this as HRmax varies significantly among individuals

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HR Reserve (HRR) Method

AKA Karvonen Method
-A method of establishing training intensity based on the difference between a client's predicted HRmax and their resting HR

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HRR Method Formula

THR = [(HRmax - HRrest) X Desired Intensity] + HRrest

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Ratings of Perceived Exertion Method (RPE)

-A technique used to express or validate how hard a client feels he or she is working during exercise
-Subjectively rating the perceived difficulty of the exercise
-6-20 Borg Scale

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Talk-Test Method

The ability to speak during activity can identify exercise intensity and ventilatory theshold

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Ventilatory Threshold

The point during graded exercise in which ventilation increases disproportionately to oxygen uptake, signifying a switch from predominately aerobic energy production to anaerobic energy production

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Time

The length of time an individual is engaged in a given activity

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Type

The type or mode of physical activity that an individual is engaged in

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3 Criteria to be Considered an Aerobic Activity

-Be rhythmic in nature
-Use large muscle groups
-Continuous in nature

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Enjoyment

The amount of pleasure derived from performing a physical activity

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Principle of Specificity

The body will adapt to the level of stress placed on it and will require more or varied amounts of stress to produce a higher level of adaptation in the future

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Stage Training

Ensures the CR training programs progress in an organized fashion to ensure continual adaptation and prevent overtraining and injury
-3 stages use 3 HR training zones

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Stage I Purpose

-Designed to help improve CR fitness levels in apparently health sedentary clients.

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Stage 1 Intensity

Uses a THR of 65-75% of HRmax, 12-13 on RPE scale

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Stage 1 CR Workout

Start slowly and gradually work up to 30-60 minutes of continuous exercise in zone one two to three times per week

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Stage II Purpose

Designed for clients with low-to-moderate CR fitness levels who are ready to begin training at higher intensity levels
-Increases workload in a way that will help client alter heart rate in and out of zone one and two

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Stage II Workout

See Book

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Stage III

See Book

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Circuit Training

-Consists of a series of strength-training exercises performed one after another with minimal rest

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Circuit Training Benefits

-Allows for comparable fitness results without spending extended periods of time to achieve them
-Just as beneficial as traditional forms of CR exercise