Cheaper 7: Muscular System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Cheaper 7: Muscular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cheaper 7: Muscular System Deck (128):
1

agon/o

Agony, a contest

2

amputat/o*

To cut through

3

brach/i*

Arm

4

cleid/o*

Clavicle

5

clon/o

Turmoil

6

duct/o

To lead.

7

dactyl/o*

Finger or toe

8

dermat/o

Skin

9

fasci/o

A band

10

fibr/o

Fiber

11

is/o*

Equal

12

metr/o

To measure

13

muscul/o

Muscle

14

my/o(s)

Muscle

15

neuro/o

Nerve

16

path/o

Disease

17

prosth/e

An addition

18

rhabd/o*

To turn

19

rotat/o

To turn

20

sarc/o

Flesh

21

scler/o*

Hardening

22

stern/o

Sternum

23

synov/o

Synovial

24

ten/o*

Tendon

25

therm/o

Hot, heat

26

ton/o

Tone, tension

27

tors/o*

Twisted

28

tort/i

Twisted

29

troph/o

A turning

30

volunt/o

Will

31

Muscles

Cause movement. Help to maintain posture and produce heat.

32

Three types of muscle

Skeletal, smooth, and cardiac

33

Skeletal muscles

Produces various types of body movement through contractility, extensibility, and elasticity. Is a voluntary muscle and is striated. Under control of the Central Nervous System.

34

Smooth muscles or visceral

Produce relatively slow contraction with greater degree of extensibility in the internal organs, especially organs of the digestive, respiratory, and urinary tract, plus certain muscles of the eye and skin, and walls of blood vessels. Is involuntary and is not striated. Under Autonomic control.

35

Cardiac muscle

Contraction of the myocardium, which is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and specialized neuromuscular tissue located within the right atrium. Is also involuntary and is striated. Under Autonomic control.

36

Tendons

Bands of connective tissue that attach muscles to bones.

37

Fascia

A group of fibers held together by connective tissue and enclosed in a fibrous sheath or this. This is a thick band of connective tissue around a muscle.

38

Sterrnocleidomastoid

Anterior, Rotates and laterally flexes neck.

39

Deltoid

Anterior/posterior, raises and rotates arm

40

Pectoralis major

Anterior, Flexes, adducts, and rotates arm

41

Biceps brachii

Anterior, flexes arm and forearm and supinates forearm

42

Gluteus medius

Posterior, Abducts and rotates thigh

43

Gluteus Maximus

Posterior, extends and rotates thigh.

44

What are the three parts of the muscle?

Body, origin, and insertion

45

Body of the muscle

The main portion of the muscle.

46

Origin of the muscle

The fixed attachment of the muscle to the stationary bone.

47

Insertion of the muscle

Is the point of attachment of a muscle to the bone that it moves.

48

Tendon

The band of fibrous connective tissue serving for the attachment of muscles to bones

49

Aponeurosis

A strong, flat sheet of fibrous connective tissue that serves as a tendon to attach muscles to bone or as a fascia to bind muscles together or to other tissues at their own origin or insertion.

50

Antagonist

Muscle that is primary in a given movement; when one contracts and the other relaxes.

51

Prime mover or agonist

Muscle that is primary in a given movement; the movement is produced by its contraction.

52

Synergist

Muscle that acts with another muscle to produce and assist movement.

53

All movement is the contraction of a prime mover (agonist) and the relaxation of the opposing muscle (antagonist).

???

54

Involuntary, visceral, or unstriated smooth muscles are not controlled by the conscious part of the brain.

?????

55

Tonicity

Where muscles continue to help maintain posture through a continual partial contraction of skeletal muscles.

56

Abductor

Muscles that on contraction draws away from the middle.

57

Adductor

Muscle that draw a part toward the middle.

58

Amputation

Surgical or traumatic removal of a limb, part, or other appendage.

59

Aponeurosis

A strong, flat sheet of fibrous connective tissue that serves as a tendon to attach muscles to bone or as fascia to bind muscles together or to other tissues at their origin or insertion.

60

Ataxia

Lack of muscular coordination; an inability to coordinate voluntary muscular movements that is symptomatic of some nervous disorders.

61

Atrophy

Lack of nourishment; wasting of muscular tissue that may be caused by lack of nerve stimulation of the muscle.

62

Brachialgia

Pain in the arm.

63

Bradykinesia

Slowness of motion or movement

64

Dactylospasm

Medical term for cramp in the finger or toe.

65

Dermatomyositis

Chronic, immunological disease with symptomatic pathology; inflammation of the muscles and the skin; a connective tissue disease characterized by Edema, dermatitis, and inflammation of the muscles.

66

Diaphragm

Partition of muscles and membranes that separate the chest cavity and the abdominal cavity. It is the major muscle of breathing.

67

Dystonia

Condition of impaired muscle tone.

68

Dystrophy

Any condition of abnormal development caused by defective nourishment, often noted by the degeneration of muscles.

69

Range of motion (ROM)

Movement of each joint through its full range of motion; used to prevent the loss of mobility or to regain usage after an injury or fracture.

70

Facia

Thin layer of connective tissue covering, supporting, or connecting the muscles or inner organs of the body.

71

Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS)

Disorder with chronic, widespread musculoskeletal pain and fatigue. It is often traced to a physical or emotional trauma. There are 18 trigger points, if a person has pain in at least 11 points they are diagnosed.

72

Insertion

Point of attachment of a muscle to the part that it moves.

73

Intramuscular (IM)

Pertaining to within the muscle, such as an IM injection.

74

Isometric

Literally means pertaining to having equal measure; increasing tension of muscle while maintaining equal lengths.

75

Isotonic

Pertaining to having the same tone or tension.

76

Levator

Muscle that raises or elevates a part.

77

Muscular dystrophy

Refers to a group of genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal or voluntary muscles that control movement.

78

Myalgia

Pain in the muscle.

79

Myasthenia gravis (MG)

Chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of weakness of the skeletal (voluntary) muscles of the body. The primary symptom is muscle weakness that increases during periods of activity and improves after periods of rest.

80

Myology

Study of muscles.

81

Myomalacia

Softening of muscle tissue.

82

Myoparesis

Weakness or slight paralysis of a muscle.

83

Myorrhaphy

Surgical suture of a muscle wound.

84

Mayosarcoma

Malignant tumor delivered from muscle tissue.

85

Myosclerosis

Abnormal condition of hardening of the muscle.

86

Myotome

Surgical instrument used to cut muscle.

87

Myotomy

Surgical incision into a muscle.

88

Polyplegia

Paralysis affecting many muscles.

89

Fowler's

Head of bed raised about 18 inches or 46 cm; patient sitting up with knees also elevated.

90

Lithotomy

On the back with extremities flexed and feet placed in stirrups.

91

Prone

Lying face downward, used in the examination of the back, injections, and massage.

92

Supine

Lying flat on the back with face upward and arm at the sides, used in examining the head, neck, chest, abdomen, and extremities and in assessing vital signs.

93

Trendelenburg

Body supine on a bed or examining table that is tilted at about a 45 degree angle with the head lower than the feet; used to displace abdominal organs during surgery and in treating cardiovascular shock, also called the shock position.

94

Prosthesis

Artificial device used to replace the organ or body part, such as a hand, arm, leg, or hip.

95

Quadriceps

Muscle that has four heads or points of origin.

96

Rhabdomyoma

Tumor of striated muscle tissue.

97

Rheumatism

General term used to describe conditions characterized by inflammation, soreness, and stiffness of muscles and pain in joints.

98

Rotation

Process of moving a body part around a central axis.

99

Rotator cuff

Group of muscles and their tendons that act to stabilize the shoulder.

100

Sarcolemma

Plasma membrane surrounding each striated muscle fiber.

101

Sternocleidomastoid

Muscle arising from the sternum and clavicle with its insertion in the mastoid process.

102

syn-

With, together

103

Tendon

Band of fibrous connective tissue serving for the attachment of muscles to bones.

104

Tendonesis

Surgical binding of a tendon

105

Tendodynia

Pain in a tendon

106

Tetany

Condition characterized by cramps, convulsions, twitching of the muscles, and sharp flexion of the wrist and ankle joints; generally caused by an abnormality in calcium metabolism.

107

Torsion

Process of being twisted.

108

Triceps

Muscle having three heads with a single insertion.

109

Voluntary

Under the control of one's will.

110

Calcium blood test

Test performed on serum to determine levels of calcium, which is essential for muscular contraction, nerve transmission, and blood clotting.

111

Creatine kinase (CK)

Blood test to determine the level of CK, which is increased in necrosis or atrophy of skeletal muscle, traumatic muscle injury, strenuous exercise, and progressive muscular dystrophy.

112

Electromyography (EMG)

Test to measure electrical activity across muscle membranes by means of electrodes attached to a needle that is inserted into the muscle.

113

AE

Above elbow

114

AK

Above knee

115

BE

Below elbow

116

BK

Below knee

117

Ca

Calcium

118

EMG

Electromyography

119

FMS

Fibromyalgia Syndrome

120

FROM

Full range of motion

121

IM

Intramuscular

122

LOM

Limited or loss of motion

123

MD

Muscular Dystrophy

124

ROM

Range of motion

125

SOB

Shortness of breath

126

TBW

Total body weight

127

TJ

Triceps jerk

128

dys-

Difficult, impaired