Chapter 8: The Digestive System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Chapter 8: The Digestive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 8: The Digestive System Deck (168):
1

absorpt/o

To suck in

2

aden/o

Gland

3

aliment/o

Nourishment

4

amyl/o

Starch

5

anabol/o

Building up

6

append/o or appendic/o

Appendix

7

bil/i

Gall, bile

8

bucc/o

Cheek

9

catabol/o

A casting down

10

celi/o

Abdomen, belly

11

cheil/o

Lip

12

chol/e

Gall, bile

13

choledoch/o

Common bile duct

14

cirrh/0

Orange-yellow

15

col/o or colon/o

Colon

16

cyst/o

Bladder

17

dent/o

Tooth

18

diverticul/o

Diverticula

19

duoden/o

Duodenum

20

enter/o

Intestine

21

esophage/o

Esophagus

22

fibr/o

Fibrous tissue

23

gastr/o

Stomach

24

gingiv/o

Gums

25

gloss/o

Tongue

26

glyc/o

Sweet, sugar

27

halit/o

Breath

28

hemat/o

Blood

29

hemorrh/o

Vein liable to bleed

30

hepat/o

Liver

31

herni/o

Hernia

32

ile/o

ileum

33

labi/o

Lip

34

lapar/o

Abdomen

35

lingu/o

Tongue

36

lip/o

Fat

37

odont/o

Tooth

38

pancreat/o

Pancreas

39

pept/o

To digest

40

pharyng/e

Pharynx

41

pil/o

Hair

42

prand/i

Meal

43

proct/o

Anus and rectum

44

pylor/o

Pylorus, gatekeeper

45

rect/o

Rectum

46

sial/o

Saliva, salivary

47

sigmoid/o

Sigmoid

48

splen/o

Spleen

49

somat/o

Mouth

50

verm/I

Worm

51

Digestive tract, gastrointestinal tract, alimentary canal

All three mean Digestive System

52

4 main functions of the Digestive System?

Ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination.

53

Pareternal nutrition

Pertaining of nutrition through the intestines, not through ingestion.

54

Mechanical digestion

Digestion through the mouth and stomach

55

Which sphincter prevents food from entering into the stomach?

Lower esophageal sphincter.

56

Which sphincter stops acid from entering the bowel?

Pyloric sphincter

57

Fatty stool

Steatorrhea

58

Eructation

Belching

59

Sphincter between the ilium and cecum

Ileocecal valve

60

Mouth

Mechanically breaks food apart by the action of the teeth; moistens and lubricates food with saliva; food is formed into a bolus, a soft mass of chewed food ready to be swallowed.

61

Teeth

Used in mastication (chewing)

62

Salivary glands

Secretes saliva to moisten and lubricate food.

63

Esophagus

Moves the bolus by peristalsis down the esophagus into the stomach

64

Stomach

Reduces food to a digestible state; converts the food to a semiliquid state called chyme

65

Small intestine

Digestion and absorption take place chiefly in the small intestine; nutrients are absorbed and transferred to body cells by the circulatory system

66

Large intestines

Reabsorbs water from the fecal material, stores, and then eliminates waste from the body via the rectum and anus.

67

Liver

Changes glucose into glycogen and stored it until needed; changes glycogen back into glucose; desaturates fats;assists in protein catabolism;manufactures bile, stores vitamins, produces heat and detoxifies toxins

68

Gallbladder

Stores and concentrates bile that has been produced by the liver

69

Pancreas

Secretes pancreatic juice into the small intestine, contains cells that produce digestive enzymes, produces the hormones in insulin and glucagon

70

Amylase

Enzyme that breaks down starch. Produced in the salivary and pancreatic

71

Anabolism

Building up of the body substance in the constructive phase of metabolism

72

Anorexia

Lack of appetite

73

Appendectomy

Surgical excision of the appendix

74

Appendicitis

Inflammation of the appendix

75

Ascites

Significant accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity.

76

Bilirubin

Orange-coloured bile pigment

77

Bowel

Intestine

78

Catabolism

Casting down; in metabolism a breaking down of complex substances into more basic elements

79

Celiac

Pertaining to the belly

80

Cheilosis

Abnormal condition of the lip as seen in riboflavin and other B-complex deficiencies

81

Cholecystectomy

Surgical excision of the gallbladder

82

Cholelithiasis

Gallstones

83

Cholecystitis

Inflammation of the gallbladder

84

Cirrhosis

Chronic liver disease

85

Colectomy

Surgical excision of part of the colon

86

Colon cancer

Malignancy of the colon. Colorectal cancer

87

Colonoscopy

Thin, lighted flexible instrument, that is used to view the interior of the colon during a colonoscopy.

88

Colonoscopy

Visual examination of the colon

89

Colostomy

Literally means the creation of a new opening into the colon.

90

Constipation

Infrequent passage of unduly hard and dry feces;difficult defecation

91

Crohn's disease

Chronic autoimmune disease that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but most commonly occurs in the ileum

92

Defication

Evacuation of the bowel.

93

Deglutition

Act or process of swallowing

94

Dentalgia

Pain in the tooth; toothache

95

Diarrhea

Frequent passage of unformed watery stools

96

Diverticulitis

Inflammation of the diverticula in the colon

97

Dyspepsia

Difficulty in digestion; indigestion

98

Dysphasia

Difficulty in swallowing

99

Emesis

Vomiting

100

Enteric

Pertaining to the small intestine

101

Enzyme

Protein substance capable of causing rapid chemical changes in other substances without being changed itself

102

Epigastric

Pertaining to the region above the stomach

103

Eructation

Belching

104

Flatus

Bloating. Expelling gas from the anus

105

Gastrectomy

Surgical incision of a part of or the whole stomach

106

Gastroenterology

Literally means this study of the stomach and intestines

107

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Condition that occurs when the muscles between the esophagus and the stomach, the lower esophageal sphincter, is weak or relaxes , inappropriately, allowing the stomach's contents to back up into the esophagus

108

Gavage

To feed liquid or semiliquid food via a tube (stomach or nasogastric)

109

Gingivitis

Inflammation of the gums

110

Halitosis

Bad breath

111

Hematemesis

Vomiting blood

112

Hematochezia

Passage of stools that contain red blood

113

Hepatitis

Inflammation of the liver

114

Hepatoma

Tumor of the liver

115

Hernia

Abnormal protrusion of an organ or a part of an organ through the wall of the body cavity that normally contains it.

116

Hiatal hernia

Occurs when the upper part of the stomached moves up into the chest through a small opening in the diaphragm

117

Hyperalimentation

Intravenous infusion of a hypertonic solution to sustain life; used in patients who's gastrointestinal tracts are not working properly.

118

Hyperemesis

Excessive vomiting

119

Ileostomy

The surgical creation of a new opening through the abdominal wall into the ilium.

120

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

Disorder that interferes with the normal functions of the large intestine (colon)

121

Labial

Pertaining to the lip

122

Laparotomy

Surgical incision into the abdomen

123

Lavage

To wash out a cavity

124

Laxative

Substance that acts to loosen bowels

125

Mastication

Chewing

126

Nausea

Uncomfortable feeling of the inclination to vomit

127

Pancreatitis

Inflammation of the pancreas

128

Peptic ulcer disease(PUD)

Disease in which an ulcer forms in the mucosal wall of the stomach. H-pylori, approximately 90% of duodenal ulcers

129

Peristalsis

Wavelike contraction that occurs involuntarily in hollow tubes of the body, especially the alimentary canal

130

Postprandial (PP)

Pertaining to after a meal

131

Proctologist

Physician who specializes in the study of the anus and rectum.

132

Pyloric

Pertaining to the gatekeeper, the opening between the stomach and the duodenum.

133

Rectocele

Hernia of part of the rectum into the vagina.

134

Sialadenitis

Inflammation of the salivary gland

135

Splenomegaly

Enlargement of the spleen

136

Ulcerative colitis

Disease that causes inflammation and ulcers in the lining of the large intestine. The inflammation usually occurs in the rectum and lower part of the colon but can affect the entire colon; also called colitis or proctitis

137

Vermiform

Shaped like a worm; vermiform appendix

138

Volvulus

Twisting of the bowel on itself that causes an obstruction

139

Barium enema

Test performed by administering barium (Ba) via the recut to determine the condition of the colon

140

Cholangiography

X-ray examination of the common bike duct, cystic duct, and hepatic ducts in which dye is injected and then x-rays taken. Abnormal results can indicate obstruction, stones, and tumors.

141

Cholecystography

X-Ray exam of the gallbladder in which radiopaque dye is injected

142

Colonoscopy

Direct visual examination of the colon

143

Esophagogastroduodenal endoscopy

Endoscopic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine

144

Gastrointestinal (GI) series

Fluoroscopic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine in which barium is given orally and is observed as it flows through the GI system

145

Occult blood

Test performed on feces to determine gastrointestinal bleeding that is not visible.

146

Ova and parasites (O and P)

Test performed on stool to identify ova and parasites. Positive result indicates Protozoa infestation

147

ac

Before meals

148

Ba

Barium

149

BE

Barium enema

150

BM

Bowel movement

151

BRP

Bathroom privileges

152

BS

Bowel sounds

153

GB

Gallbladder

154

GERD

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

155

GI

Gastrointestinal

156

GTT

Glucose tolerance test

157

HCl

Hydrochloric acid

158

IBS

Irritable bowel syndrome

159

LES

Lower esophageal sphincter

160

NG

Nasogastric

161

NPO, npo

Nothing by mouth

162

O and P

Ova and parasites

163

PC

After meals

164

PP

Postprandial

165

PUD

Peptic ulcer disease

166

TPN

Total parenteral nutrition

167

UGI

Upper gastrointestinal

168

The hardest tissue in the entire body?

Enamel