Chapter 14: Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Chapter 14: Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 14: Nervous System Deck (148):
1

cephal/o

Head

2

cerebell/o

Little brain

3

cerebr/o

Cerebrum

4

chrom/o

Color

5

cran/i

Skull

6

crani/o

Skull

7

cyt/o

Cell

8

dendr/o

Tree

9

disk/o

A disk

10

dur/o

Dura, hard

11

electr/o

Electricity

12

encephal/o

Brain

13

esthesi/o

Feeling

14

fibr/o

Fiber

15

gli/o

Glue

16

hypn/o

Sleep

17

lamin/o

Thin plate

18

later/o

side

19

lob/o

Lobe

20

mening/i

Membrane, meninges

21

mening/o

Membrane, meninges

22

ment/o

Mind

23

my/o

Muscle

24

myel/o

Bone marrow, spinal cord

25

narc/o

Numbness, sleep, stupor

26

neur/I

Nerve

27

neur/o

Nerve

28

pallid/o

Globus, pallidus

29

papill/o

Papilla

30

phe/o

Dusky

31

poli/o

Gray

32

somn/o

Sleep

33

spin/o

A thorn, spine

34

spondyl/o

Vertebra

35

vag/o

Vagus, wandering

36

ventricul/o

Ventricle

37

Nervous System

Has two interconnected divisions: The central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS)

38

Neurons

Structural and functional units of the nervous system. Specialized conductors of impulses that enable the body to interact with its internal and external environments. Involved in impulse transmission.

39

Neuroglia

In the brain and spinal cord. Act as supporting tissues.

40

Nerve fibers and tracts

Conduct impulses from one location to another.

41

Central nervous system

Receives impulses from throughout the body, processes the information and responds with an appropriate action.

42

Brain

Governs sensory perception, emotions, consciousness, memory, and voluntary movements

43

Spinal cord

Conducts sensory impulses to the brain and motor impulses from the brain to body parts; also serves as a reflex center for impulses entering and leaving the spinal cord without involvement of the brain.

44

Peripheral Nervous System

Links the central nervous system with other parts of the body.

45

Cranial nerves (12 pairs)

Provide sensory input and motor control, or a combination of these

46

Spinal nerves (31 pairs)

Carry impulses to the spinal cord and to muscles, organs, and glands

47

Autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions)

Controls involuntary bodily functions such as sweating, secretion of glands, arterial blood pressure, smooth muscle tissue, and the heart. Also stimulates the adrenal gland to release epinephrine (adrenaline), the hormone that causes the familiar adrenaline rush or the "fight-or-flight response"

48

Motor neurons in the PNS

Called efferent processes because they transmit impulses away from the cell body to the muscles or organs

49

Axon

Long and covered with a fatty substance or myelin sheath that acts as an insulator and increases the transmission velocity of the nerve fiber it surrounds.

50

Dendrites

Resemble the branches of a tree, they are short and unsheathed an transmit impulses to the cell body.

51

Sensory neurons in the PNS *

Are afferent nerves because they carry impulses from the sensory receptors to the synaptic endings in the central nervous system

52

Interneurons in the CNS

Called central or associative neutrons function to mediate impulses between sensory and motor neurons

53

Nerve fiber

Is a single elongated process, the axon of a neuron.

54

Neurilemma *

The outer sheath composed of Schwann cells of the myelinated fiber.

55

Tracts

Groups of nerve fibers within the CNS

56

Largest tract

The brain has numerous tracts, the largest is the corpus callosum joining the right and left hemispheres of the brain.

57

Receptor *

Stimulation of a nerve occurs here.

58

All-or-none principle*

The transmission of an impulse is based on this in that no transmission occurs until the stimulus reaches a set minimum strength, which can very from different receptors

59

Grey matter

Consists of unsheathed cell bodies and true dendrites

60

White matter

Composed of myelinated nerve fibers, the axons.

61

brain

consists of millions of nerve cells and fibers.

62

meninges

the three membranes that enclose the brain

63

cerebrum

7/8ths of the brain's total wt. it evaluates and controls all sensory and motor activity; sensory perception, emotions, consciousness, memory, and all voluntary movements.

64

corpus callosum

large fiber tracts that allow information to pass between the two cerebellar hemispheres

65

gyrus (s) gyri (p) or convolution

bulges of the brain matter

66

sulcus(s) sulci (p)

the furrows of the brain

67

frontal lobe *

major motor area and the site for personality and speech

68

parietal lobe

contains centers for sensory input from all parts of the body and is known as the somesthetic area and the site for the interpretation of language. Temperature, pressure, touch, and an awareness of muscle control.

69

temporal lobe *

contains centers for hearing, smell, and language input.

70

occipital lobe

is the primary interpretive processing area for vision

71

cerebellum

the second largest part of the brain, plays an important part in the coordination of voluntary and involuntary complex patterns of movement and adjusts muscles to maintain posture,

72

diencephalon

second portion of the brain and refers to the thalamus and hypothalamus

73

thalamus *

serves as a relay center for all the sensory impulses (except olfactory) being transmitted to the sensory areas of the cortex

74

hypothalamus

is beneath the thalamus and is the principle regulator of autonomic nervous activity that is associated with behavior and emotional expression,

75

infundibulum

the narrow stalk that attaches the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus

76

midbrain

is located below the cerebrum and above the pons

77

pons *

is a broad band of white matter located anterior to the cerebellum and between the midbrain and the medulla oblongata. Composed of tracts linking the cerebellum and medulla to higher cortical areas. plays a role in somatic and visceral motor control and important centers for regulating breathing

78

medulla oblongata *

connects pons and the rest of the brain to the spinal cord. It contains nerve centers for regulation and control of breathing, swallowing, coughing, sneezing, vomiting, the heartbeat, and blood pressure. Controls the ANS.

79

spinal cord

has an H-shaped gray area of cell bodies encircled by an outer region of white. The white matter consists of nerve tracts and fibers providing sensory input to the brain and conducting motor impulses from the brain to the spinal neurons. It is about 44cm long

80

Vestibulocochlear (Acoustic) Nerve

It is the Acoustic Auditory Nerve, Number VIII, it provides input for hearing and equilibrium There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves

81

Vagus (X)

controls muscles of the pharynx, larynx, thoracic, and abdominal organs; swallowing, voice production, slowing of heartbeat, acceleration of peristalsis

82

Autonomic Nervous System

Part of the Peripheral Nervous System. it controls involuntary bodily functions such as sweating, secretions of glands, arterial blood pressure, smooth muscle tissue, and the heart. It has two divisions sympathetic and parasympathetic.

83

Sympathetic division

Branches from the 12 thoracic and the first 3 lumbar spinal nerves. This is where the fight or flight response happens. This division stimulates the adrenal gland to release epinephrine (adrenaline)

84

Parasympathetic division

It branches from the cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and X and the sacral nerves II, III, IV. It works to conserve energy and innervate the digestive system. It stimulates the salivary and digestive glans, decreases the metabolic rate, slows the heart rate, reduces blood pressure and promotes the passage of material through the intestines, along with absorption of the nutrients by the blood.

85

acetylcholine (ACh)

cholinergic neurotransmitter; plays and important role in the transmission of nerve impulses at synapses and myoneural junctions.

86

amnesia

condition in which there is a loss or lack of memory

87

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

also called Lou Gehrig's disease; a muscular weakness, atrophy, with spasticity caused by degeneration of motor neurons

88

anencephaly

congenital condition in which there is a lack of development of the brain.

89

aphasia

a lack of the ability to speak, may be caused by stroke, traumatic brain injury

90

apraxia

loss or lack of the ability to use objects properly and to recognize common ones; inability to perform motor tasks or activities of daily living, such as dressing and bathing

91

asthenia

loss or lack of strength.

92

ataxia

loss or lack of order; lack of coordination of the muscle movements.

93

bradykinesia

abnormal slowness of motion

94

cephalalgia

head pain or headache

95

concussion

head injury with a transient loss of brain function; mild brain injury, mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), mild head injury (MHI), and minor head trauma

96

craniectomy

surgical excision of a portion of the skull

97

dyslexia

condition in which and individual has difficulty in reading and comprehending written language

98

encephalitis

inflammation of the brain

99

endorphins

chemical substances produced in the brain that act as natural analgesics (opiates) and provide feelings of pleasure

100

epidural

literally means pertaining to situated on the dura mater; often used to refer to a form of regional anesthesia involving injection of medication via a catheter into the epidural space. This causes both a loss of sensation and a loss of pain by blocking the transmission of signals through nerves in or near the spinal cord.

101

Hemiparesis

Weakness on one side of the body that can be caused by a stroke,cerebral palsy, brain tumour, multiple sclerosis, and other brain and nervous system diseases

102

Hemiplegia

Paralysis of one half of the body when it is divided along the median Sagittarius plane; total paralysis of the arm, leg, and trunk on the same side of the body. Stroke is the most common cause

103

Hydrocephalus

Condition in which there is an increased amount of cerebrospinal fluid within the brain

104

Hypnosis

Artificially induced trancelike state resembling somnambulism (sleep)

105

Meningitis

Inflammation of the meninges of the spinal cord or brain. People with bacterial meningitis are usually hospitalized

106

Narcolepsy

Chronic condition with recurrent attacks of uncontrollable drowsiness and sleep

107

Neuralgia

Pain in the nerve or nerves

108

-lepsy

Seizure

109

Neurilemma

The membranous sheath that envelops a nerve fibre; also called sheath of Schwann or neurolemma

110

Neuroglia

Supporting or connective tissue cells of the CNS. (Astrocytes, oligodendroglia, microglia, and ependymal cells)

111

Neurotransmitter

Chemical messenger in the nervous system. The cell body makes neurotransmitters. IChemical substance, such as dopamine and acetylcholine, transmitted across a synapse that transmits a signal between two neurons

112

Paraplegia

Paralysis of the lower part of the body and of both legs

113

Parkinson's disease

Progressive neurological disorder caused by degeneration of nerve cells in the part of the brain that controls movement this degeneration creates a shortage of the brain signaling chemical (neurotransmitter) known as dopamine, causing the movement impairments that characterize the disease.

114

Pheochromocytoma

Chromaffin cell tumor of the adrenal medulla or of the sympathetic nervous system

115

Quadriplegia

Paralysis of all four extremities and usually the trunk due to injury to the spinal cord in the cervical spine, also called tetraplegia

116

Receptor

Sensory nerve ending that receives and relays responses to stimuli

117

Stroke

Death of focal brain tissue that occurs when the brain does not get sufficient blood and oxygen also called cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or brain attack

118

Transient ischemic attack (TIA)

Is a temporary interference in the blood supply to the brain. It is sometimes referred to as a ministroke, and symptoms can last for a few minutes or several hours

119

Syncope

Temporary loss of consciousness caused by a lack of blood supply to the brain; also called fainting

120

Tactile

Pertaining to the sense of touch.

121

Vagotomy

Surgical incision of the vagus nerve

122

Computed tomography (CT)

Diagnostic procedure used to study the structure of the brain. Computerized three-dimensional x-ray images allow the radiologist to differentiate among intracranial tumours, cysts, edema, and hemorrhage.

123

Lumbar puncture (LP)

Insertion of a needle into the lumbar subarachnoid space for removal of spinal fluid. THE fluid is examined for color, pressure, and the level of protein, chloride, glucose, and leukocytes

124

Myelogram

X-Ray of the spinal canal after the injection of a radiopaque dye. Useful in diagnosing spinal lesions, cysts, herniated disks, tumours, and nerve root damage.

125

Positron emission tomography (PET)

Computer-based nuclear imaging procedure that can produce three-dimensional pictures of actual organ functioning. Useful in locating brain lesion, identifying blood flow and oxygen metabolism in stroke patients,showing metabolic changes in Alzheimer's disease, and studying biochemical changes associated with mental illness.

126

AD

Alzheimer's disease

127

ALS

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

128

CNS

Central nervous system

129

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

130

CT

Computerized tomography

131

CVA

Cerebrovascular accident

132

EEG

Electroencephalogram

133

HDS

Herniated disk syndrome

134

ICP

Intracranial pressure

135

PET

Positron emission tomography

136

REM

Rapid eye movement

137

TIA

Transient ischemic attack

138

nREM

Deep sleep

139

There are 4 stages of sleep

4

140

Impulse transmission

The way everything travels in a nerve cell

141

3 parts of a neuron

Dendrites, cell body, axon

142

Sciatic nerve

The longest nerve in the body

143

The nerve that carries impulses to the brain and spinal cord?

A) sensory nerve b) motor c) afferent d) both a and c. D is correct

144

Three meningeal layers

Outer most; dura, middle layer; arachnoid, innermost layer; Pia mater

145

Many axon bundles in the PNS

Nerve

146

Many axon bundles in the CNS

Tract

147

3 types of neurons

Motor (efferent), sensory (afferent), and interneurons or central or associative

148

The nerve that carriers impulses to the effector organs is called the _________ nerve.

a) sensory b) motor c) efferent, d) both b and c
The correct is d.