Flashcards in Chapter 14: Nervous System Deck (148):
Bone marrow, spinal cord
Numbness, sleep, stupor
A thorn, spine
Has two interconnected divisions: The central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Structural and functional units of the nervous system. Specialized conductors of impulses that enable the body to interact with its internal and external environments. Involved in impulse transmission.
In the brain and spinal cord. Act as supporting tissues.
Nerve fibers and tracts
Conduct impulses from one location to another.
Central nervous system
Receives impulses from throughout the body, processes the information and responds with an appropriate action.
Governs sensory perception, emotions, consciousness, memory, and voluntary movements
Conducts sensory impulses to the brain and motor impulses from the brain to body parts; also serves as a reflex center for impulses entering and leaving the spinal cord without involvement of the brain.
Peripheral Nervous System
Links the central nervous system with other parts of the body.
Cranial nerves (12 pairs)
Provide sensory input and motor control, or a combination of these
Spinal nerves (31 pairs)
Carry impulses to the spinal cord and to muscles, organs, and glands
Autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions)
Controls involuntary bodily functions such as sweating, secretion of glands, arterial blood pressure, smooth muscle tissue, and the heart. Also stimulates the adrenal gland to release epinephrine (adrenaline), the hormone that causes the familiar adrenaline rush or the "fight-or-flight response"
Motor neurons in the PNS
Called efferent processes because they transmit impulses away from the cell body to the muscles or organs
Long and covered with a fatty substance or myelin sheath that acts as an insulator and increases the transmission velocity of the nerve fiber it surrounds.
Resemble the branches of a tree, they are short and unsheathed an transmit impulses to the cell body.
Sensory neurons in the PNS *
Are afferent nerves because they carry impulses from the sensory receptors to the synaptic endings in the central nervous system
Interneurons in the CNS
Called central or associative neutrons function to mediate impulses between sensory and motor neurons
Is a single elongated process, the axon of a neuron.
The outer sheath composed of Schwann cells of the myelinated fiber.
Groups of nerve fibers within the CNS
The brain has numerous tracts, the largest is the corpus callosum joining the right and left hemispheres of the brain.
Stimulation of a nerve occurs here.
The transmission of an impulse is based on this in that no transmission occurs until the stimulus reaches a set minimum strength, which can very from different receptors
Consists of unsheathed cell bodies and true dendrites
Composed of myelinated nerve fibers, the axons.
consists of millions of nerve cells and fibers.
the three membranes that enclose the brain
7/8ths of the brain's total wt. it evaluates and controls all sensory and motor activity; sensory perception, emotions, consciousness, memory, and all voluntary movements.
large fiber tracts that allow information to pass between the two cerebellar hemispheres
gyrus (s) gyri (p) or convolution
bulges of the brain matter
sulcus(s) sulci (p)
the furrows of the brain
frontal lobe *
major motor area and the site for personality and speech
contains centers for sensory input from all parts of the body and is known as the somesthetic area and the site for the interpretation of language. Temperature, pressure, touch, and an awareness of muscle control.
temporal lobe *
contains centers for hearing, smell, and language input.
is the primary interpretive processing area for vision
the second largest part of the brain, plays an important part in the coordination of voluntary and involuntary complex patterns of movement and adjusts muscles to maintain posture,
second portion of the brain and refers to the thalamus and hypothalamus
serves as a relay center for all the sensory impulses (except olfactory) being transmitted to the sensory areas of the cortex
is beneath the thalamus and is the principle regulator of autonomic nervous activity that is associated with behavior and emotional expression,
the narrow stalk that attaches the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus
is located below the cerebrum and above the pons
is a broad band of white matter located anterior to the cerebellum and between the midbrain and the medulla oblongata. Composed of tracts linking the cerebellum and medulla to higher cortical areas. plays a role in somatic and visceral motor control and important centers for regulating breathing
medulla oblongata *
connects pons and the rest of the brain to the spinal cord. It contains nerve centers for regulation and control of breathing, swallowing, coughing, sneezing, vomiting, the heartbeat, and blood pressure. Controls the ANS.
has an H-shaped gray area of cell bodies encircled by an outer region of white. The white matter consists of nerve tracts and fibers providing sensory input to the brain and conducting motor impulses from the brain to the spinal neurons. It is about 44cm long
Vestibulocochlear (Acoustic) Nerve
It is the Acoustic Auditory Nerve, Number VIII, it provides input for hearing and equilibrium There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves
controls muscles of the pharynx, larynx, thoracic, and abdominal organs; swallowing, voice production, slowing of heartbeat, acceleration of peristalsis
Autonomic Nervous System
Part of the Peripheral Nervous System. it controls involuntary bodily functions such as sweating, secretions of glands, arterial blood pressure, smooth muscle tissue, and the heart. It has two divisions sympathetic and parasympathetic.
Branches from the 12 thoracic and the first 3 lumbar spinal nerves. This is where the fight or flight response happens. This division stimulates the adrenal gland to release epinephrine (adrenaline)
It branches from the cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and X and the sacral nerves II, III, IV. It works to conserve energy and innervate the digestive system. It stimulates the salivary and digestive glans, decreases the metabolic rate, slows the heart rate, reduces blood pressure and promotes the passage of material through the intestines, along with absorption of the nutrients by the blood.
cholinergic neurotransmitter; plays and important role in the transmission of nerve impulses at synapses and myoneural junctions.
condition in which there is a loss or lack of memory
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
also called Lou Gehrig's disease; a muscular weakness, atrophy, with spasticity caused by degeneration of motor neurons
congenital condition in which there is a lack of development of the brain.
a lack of the ability to speak, may be caused by stroke, traumatic brain injury
loss or lack of the ability to use objects properly and to recognize common ones; inability to perform motor tasks or activities of daily living, such as dressing and bathing
loss or lack of strength.
loss or lack of order; lack of coordination of the muscle movements.
abnormal slowness of motion
head pain or headache
head injury with a transient loss of brain function; mild brain injury, mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), mild head injury (MHI), and minor head trauma
surgical excision of a portion of the skull
condition in which and individual has difficulty in reading and comprehending written language
inflammation of the brain
chemical substances produced in the brain that act as natural analgesics (opiates) and provide feelings of pleasure
literally means pertaining to situated on the dura mater; often used to refer to a form of regional anesthesia involving injection of medication via a catheter into the epidural space. This causes both a loss of sensation and a loss of pain by blocking the transmission of signals through nerves in or near the spinal cord.
Weakness on one side of the body that can be caused by a stroke,cerebral palsy, brain tumour, multiple sclerosis, and other brain and nervous system diseases
Paralysis of one half of the body when it is divided along the median Sagittarius plane; total paralysis of the arm, leg, and trunk on the same side of the body. Stroke is the most common cause
Condition in which there is an increased amount of cerebrospinal fluid within the brain
Artificially induced trancelike state resembling somnambulism (sleep)
Inflammation of the meninges of the spinal cord or brain. People with bacterial meningitis are usually hospitalized
Chronic condition with recurrent attacks of uncontrollable drowsiness and sleep
Pain in the nerve or nerves
The membranous sheath that envelops a nerve fibre; also called sheath of Schwann or neurolemma
Supporting or connective tissue cells of the CNS. (Astrocytes, oligodendroglia, microglia, and ependymal cells)
Chemical messenger in the nervous system. The cell body makes neurotransmitters. IChemical substance, such as dopamine and acetylcholine, transmitted across a synapse that transmits a signal between two neurons
Paralysis of the lower part of the body and of both legs
Progressive neurological disorder caused by degeneration of nerve cells in the part of the brain that controls movement this degeneration creates a shortage of the brain signaling chemical (neurotransmitter) known as dopamine, causing the movement impairments that characterize the disease.
Chromaffin cell tumor of the adrenal medulla or of the sympathetic nervous system
Paralysis of all four extremities and usually the trunk due to injury to the spinal cord in the cervical spine, also called tetraplegia
Sensory nerve ending that receives and relays responses to stimuli
Death of focal brain tissue that occurs when the brain does not get sufficient blood and oxygen also called cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or brain attack
Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
Is a temporary interference in the blood supply to the brain. It is sometimes referred to as a ministroke, and symptoms can last for a few minutes or several hours
Temporary loss of consciousness caused by a lack of blood supply to the brain; also called fainting
Pertaining to the sense of touch.
Surgical incision of the vagus nerve
Computed tomography (CT)
Diagnostic procedure used to study the structure of the brain. Computerized three-dimensional x-ray images allow the radiologist to differentiate among intracranial tumours, cysts, edema, and hemorrhage.
Lumbar puncture (LP)
Insertion of a needle into the lumbar subarachnoid space for removal of spinal fluid. THE fluid is examined for color, pressure, and the level of protein, chloride, glucose, and leukocytes
X-Ray of the spinal canal after the injection of a radiopaque dye. Useful in diagnosing spinal lesions, cysts, herniated disks, tumours, and nerve root damage.
Positron emission tomography (PET)
Computer-based nuclear imaging procedure that can produce three-dimensional pictures of actual organ functioning. Useful in locating brain lesion, identifying blood flow and oxygen metabolism in stroke patients,showing metabolic changes in Alzheimer's disease, and studying biochemical changes associated with mental illness.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Central nervous system
Herniated disk syndrome
Positron emission tomography
Rapid eye movement
Transient ischemic attack
There are 4 stages of sleep
The way everything travels in a nerve cell
3 parts of a neuron
Dendrites, cell body, axon
The longest nerve in the body
The nerve that carries impulses to the brain and spinal cord?
A) sensory nerve b) motor c) afferent d) both a and c. D is correct
Three meningeal layers
Outer most; dura, middle layer; arachnoid, innermost layer; Pia mater
Many axon bundles in the PNS
Many axon bundles in the CNS
3 types of neurons
Motor (efferent), sensory (afferent), and interneurons or central or associative