Chapter 19: Oncology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 19: Oncology Deck (194):
1

aden/o

Gland

2

angi/o

Vessel

3

cancer/o

Crab, cancer

4

capsul/o

A little box

5

carcin/o

cancer

6

chondr/o

Cartilage

7

chori/o

Chorion

8

cyt/o

Cell

9

dendr/o

Tree

10

duct/o

To lead

11

fibr/o

Fiber

12

filtrat/o

To strain through

13

gli/o

Glue

14

hem/o

Blood

15

immun/o

Safe, immunity

16

lei/o

Smooth

17

malign/o

Bad kind

18

medull/o

Marrow

19

melan/o

Black

20

mening/i

Meninges, membrane

21

myc/o

Fungus

22

myel/o

Bone marrow

23

nephr/o

Kidney

24

neuro/o

Nerve

25

Cancer

CA; a latin word meaning crab

26

cancer

refers to any malignant tumor, neoplasm, or oncoma.

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surgical techniques

are being used to remove cancerous tissue, and it is usually possible to excise all the cancer cells when the malignancy is found at its earliest stages.

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Two principal means of treatment for patients with cancer

chemotherapy and radiation therapy

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60% of cancers

occur in people over age 65

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anatomical site

indicates where the cancer originated in the body.

31

carcinomas

make up the great majority of all cancers and are malignant tumors of epithelial tissues: found in the breast, stomach, uterus, tongue, and skin

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squamous carcinoma

cancer of squamous epithelium

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basil cell carcinoma

type of skin cancer

34

bronchogenic carcinoma

cancer originating in the bronchus of the respiratory tract

35

sarcomas

originate in connective or supportive tissues of the body such as the muscles, tendon, fat , joins, and bone

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osteosarcoma

cancer of the bone

37

leukemias

cancers of the blood-forming tissues

38

lymphomas

cancerous tumors of the lymph nodes

39

myelomas

are cancerous tumors arising in the hemopoietic portion of the bone marrow

40

differentiation

normal cell development, immature cells undergo normal changes as they mature and assume their specialized functions

41

dedifferentiation

the failure of immature cells to develop specialized functions

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malignant cells

usually multiply rapidly, forming a mass of abnormal cells that enlarges, ulcerates, and sheds malignant cells that invade surrounding tissues.

43

based on microscopic analysis, malignant tumors are classified into grades

I, II, III, IV This system is used to report the prognosis of the disease and to determine if the tumor is likely to respond to radiation or chemotherapy, as well as the prognosis for surgery

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grade I

least malignant tumors. Only a few cells are undergoing mitosis, however, some abnormality does exist

45

grade II

moderately undifferentiated. More cells are undergoing mitosis and the pattern is fairly irregular

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grade III

many undifferentiated cells. Tissues origin can be difficult to recognize. Many cells undergoing mitosis

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grade IV

the least differentiated and high degree of malignancy

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Two ways in which malignant cells spread to body parts

invasive growth and metastasis

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invasive growth

spreading process of a malignant tumor into adjacent normal tissue

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active migration

the malignant cells break away from the neoplasm (new growth), invade surrounding tissue, divide, form secondary neoplasms, and then reunite with the primary tumor as growth continues

51

direct extension

multiplication of malignant cell is rapid and subsequently spread into surrounding tissues via the interstitial spaces accompanied by engulfment and destruction of normal cells. ex. breast cancer can spread to the bone, lung, or liver

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metastasis

the process by whereby cancer cells are spread from a primary site to distant secondary sites elsewhere in the body. This usually occurs when malignant cells invade the bloodstream or lymph system and are transported to a secondary site where they become lodged and form a neoplasm

53

staging

uses letters T=tumor N=node M=metastasis to indicate the spread and uses numerical subscripts to indicate degree of tumor involvement

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T2N1M0

Indicates, primary tumor is at stage II, abnormality of regional lymph nodes at stage I, and no evidence of distant metastasis

55

A numerical system is also used to classify the staging of cancer

Stage 0: treatable, cancer in situ(limited to the inner lining surface of the organ and not invading the organ)

56

Stage I

Cancer limited to the tissue of origin and has not spread past the tissue or organ where it started

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Stage II

Limited local spread of cancerous cells, sometimes to lymph nodes

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Stage III

Extensive local and regional spread of cancer, usually to draining lymph nodes

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Stage IV

Distant metastasis, has spread beyond the regional lymph nodes to distant parts of the body

60

The American Cancer Society has 7 warning signals of cancer that spell CAUTION

C: change in bowel habits, A: a sore that does not heal, U: unusual bleeding or discharge, T: thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere, I: indigestion or difficulty in swallowing, O: obvious change in wart or mole, N: nagging cough or hoarseness

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An annual physical examination

could be the best means to protect a person's state of health

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Visualization by Endoscopy

provides the physician a direct view of certain portions of the body

63

sigmoidoscopy

use of a sigmoidoscope to examine the lower 10 inches of the large intestines

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laryngoscopy

use of a laryngoscope to examine the interior of the larynx

65

bronchoscopy

use of a bronchoscope to examine the bronchi

66

gastroscopy

use of a gastroscope to examine the interior of the stomach

67

cystoscopy

use of a cystoscope to examine the bladder

68

colposcopy

use of a colposcope to examine the cervix and vagina

69

proctoscopy

use of a proctoscope to examine the anus and rectum

70

colonoscopy

use of a colonoscope to examine the colon

71

laparoscopy

use of a laparoscope to examine the abdomen

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Laboratory Analysis

plays a key role in detecting specific types of cancer

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pap smear test

cytological screening test developed by Dr. George Papanicolaou and used to detect the presence of abnormal or cancerous cells from the cervix and vagina

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fecal occult blood test

test to detect occult (hidden) blood in the stool (feces) if present, further testing would be needed to check for possible cancer of the colon

75

sputum cytology test

microscopic examination of sputum to detect abnormal or cancerous cells of the bronchi and lungs

76

blood serum test

analysis of blood serum to obtain useful information about certain proteins synthesized by cancer. two tests are AFP and HCG

77

Alpha-fetoprotein test (AFP)

test to diagnose or monitor fetal distress or fetal abnormalities, diagnose some liver disorders, and screen for and monitor some cancers; higher than normal levels and indicate cancer in testes, ovaries, biliary tract, stomach, or pancreas

78

Human chorionic gonadotropin test (HCG)

test in which abnormal results can indicate ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, testicular cancer, or trophoblastic tumor. During therapy a falling HCG level indicates that the cancer is responding to treatment. rising levels indicate that the cancer is not responding to therapy. Increased levels after treatment can indicate a recurrence of disease

79

Bone marrow study

a test to detect abnormal bone marrow cells, which can indicate leukemia

80

Urine assay test

test providing useful information about catecholamines, which can indicate pheochromocytoma of the adrenal medulla

81

Cancer antigen 125 CA-125

test that measures the amount of this protein in the blood. It is found on the surface of many ovarian cancer cells. It can also be found in other cancers and in small amounts in normal tissue

82

Biopsy

surgical removal of a small piece of tissue for microscopic examination

83

excisional biopsy

surgical removal of a piece of tissue from the suspected body site

84

incisional biopsy

surgical incision to remove a section or wedge of tissue from the suspected body site

85

needle biopsy

puncture of a tumor for the removal of a core of tissue through the lumen of a needle

86

fine needle aspiration (FNA)

form of breast biopsy in which a small needle is used to withdraw a sample of cells from the breast lump. If the lump is a cyst, removal of the fluid will cause the cyst to collapse. If the lump is solid, cells can be smeared onto a slides for examination

87

core biopsy

Large-bore needle removal of a generous sample of breast tissue and a vacuum-assisted needle biopsy device (VAD), which uses vacuum suction to obtain a tissue sample

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cone biopsy

removal of a cone of tissue from the uterine cervix

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sternal biopsy

removal of a piece of bone marrow from the sternum

90

endoscopic biopsy

removal of a piece of tissue through an endoscope

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punch biopsy

removal of a plug of tissue (epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous) tissue from the skin

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Treatment of cancer

Surgery, Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, photodynamic therapy

93

Chemotherapy

Chemo, can be used when the cancer is widespread and cannot be surgically removed, or when a tumor fails to respond to radiation therapy. The aim is to put the cancer patient in remission

94

Radiation therapy

Can be defined as the process whereby energy is beamed from its source to a selected target tissue. It is used for a curative or palliative mode of therapy

95

Stages of Breast Cancer

Carcinoma in situ (CIS), Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, IIIA, IIIB, Stage IV, and Recurrent breast cancer

96

Carcinoma in situ (CIS)

cancer is confined to the lobules or ducts and has not invaded nearby breast tissue

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Stage I

tumor is smaller than or equal to 2 cm

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Stage II

tumor is between 2 and 5 cm or without positive lymph nodes, or tumor is greater than 5 cm without positive lymph nodes

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Stage IIIA

tumor is larger than 5 cm with positive movable lymph nodes, or tumor is any size with lymph nodes that adhere to one another or surrounding tissue

100

Stage IIIB

tumor of any size has spread to the skin, chest wall, or internal mammary lymph nodes

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Stage IV

tumor, regardless of size, has metastasized to distant sites such as bones, lungs, or lymph nodes not near the breast

102

Recurrent breast cancer

disease has returned in spite of initial treatment

103

Hodgkin's disease (HD)

called Hodgkin's lymphoma, is a cancer that starts in lymphatic tissue. named after Dr. Thomas Hodgkin in 1832. This cancer usually starts in the lymph nodes in the upper part of the body

104

Hodgkin's disease (HD)

called Hodgkin's lymphoma, is a cancer that starts in lymphatic tissue. named after Dr. Thomas Hodgkin in 1832

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Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)

a cancer that begins in the lymphatic system, usually in a B cell in a lymph node.

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Leukemia

a cancer that usually affects the white blood cells

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Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)

a life-threatening disease in which the cells that normally develop into lymphocytes become cancerous and rapidly replace normal cells in the bone marrow

108

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)

where the myelocytes become cancerous and rapidly replace normal cells in the bone marrow

109

chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML)

where a cell in the bone marrow becomes cancerous and produces a large number of abnormal granulocytes. It is uncommon in children under 10 years old. Also called myeloid, myelogenous and granulocytic leukemia

110

chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML)

where a cell in the bone marrow becomes cancerous and produces a large number of abnormal granulocytes. It is uncommon in children under 10 years old. Also called myeloid, myelogenous and granulocytic leukemia

111

lung cancer

two types non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer

112

Common signs and symptoms of lung cancer

a cough that doesn't go away, constant chest pain, coughing up blood, shortness of breath, wheezing, or hoarseness, repeated problems with pneumonia or bronchitis, swelling of the neck and face, loss of appetite or weight loss, and fatigue

113

testicular cancer (TC)

a disease in which malignant cells form in the tissues of one or both testicles. It is most common in men 20-35

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adenocarcinoma (Adeno-CA)

malignant tumor arising in a glandular organ

115

anaplasia

characteristic of most cancerous cells in which there is a loss of differentiation and an irreversible alteration in adult cells toward more embryonic cell types

116

betatron

megavoltage machine used in administering external radiation therapy

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betatron

megavoltage machine used in administering external radiation therapy

118

brachytherapy

radiation therapy in which the radioactive substance is inserted into a body cavity or organ. The source of radiation is located a short distance from the body area being treated

119

Burkitt's lymphoma

Malignant tumor, most commonly found in Africa, that affects children; the characteristic symptom is a massive, swollen jaw

120

carcinogen

agent or substance that incites or produces cancer

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carcinoid

tumor derived from the argentaffin cells in the intestinal tract, bile duct, pancreas, bronchus, or ovary

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-oid

resemble

123

chondrosarcoma

cancerous tumor derived from cartilage cells

124

chondr/o

cartilage

125

choriocarcinoma

cancerous tumor of the uterus or at the site of an ectopic pregnancy

126

chori/o

chorion

127

cyclotron

megavoltage machine used in administering external radiation therapy

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dedifferentiation

process by which normal cells lose their specialization and become malignant

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differentiation

process by which normal cells have a distinct appearance and specialized funtion

130

Ewing's sarcoma

primary bone cancer occurring in the pelvic area or in one of the long bones; occurs mostly in children and adolescents

131

exacerbation

process of increasing the severity of symptoms; opposite is remission

132

fibrosarcoma

cancerous tumor arising in collagen-producing fibroblasts

133

fungating

process of growing rapidly, like a fungus

134

glioma

cancerous tumor of the brain

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hemangiosarcoma

cancerous tumor originating in the blood vessels

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hyperplasia

excessive formation and growth of normal cells

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immunosuppression

process of preventing formation of the immune response

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in situ

enclosed within a site, refers to tumor cells that remain at a site and have not invaded adjacent tissue

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Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)

malignant neoplasm that causes violaceous (purplish discoloration) vascular lesions and general lymphadenopathy; often seen in patients who have AIDS

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leiomyosarcoma

cancerous tumor of smooth muscle tissue

141

lei/o

smooth

142

leukemia

cancer of the blood characterized by overproduction of leukocytes; cancer of the blood forming tissues

143

leukoplakia

white, thickened patches formed on the mucous membranes of the inner cheeks, gums, or tongue that tend to become cancerous

144

linear accelerator

megavoltage machine used in administering external radiation therapy

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liposarcoma

cancerous tumor of the fat cells

146

melanoma

literally means a cancerous black mole or tumor

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melanoma

literally means a cancerous black mole or tumor

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metastasis

spreading process of cancer from a primary site to a secondary site

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mutagen

agent that causes a chance in DNA of an organism. Not all are cancerous

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mutation

process by which the DNA is changed

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neoplasm

new tissue formed, such as an abnormal growth or tumor

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nephroblastoma

cancerous tumor of the kidney, also called Wilms' tumor; most often found in children

153

oligodendroglioma

cancerous tumor composed of neuroglial cells and located in the cerebrum

154

oncogenes

cancer-causing genes; genes in a virus that can induce tumor formation

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palliative

pertaining to a form of treatment to relieve or alleviate symptoms without curing

156

palliat

cloaked

157

remission

process of lessening the severity of symptoms; time when symptoms of a disease are controlled

158

rhabdomyosarcoma

cancerous tumor originating from the same embryonic cells that develop into striated muscles. It is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children. rhabdo=rod

159

rhabdomyosarcoma

cancerous tumor originating from the same embryonic cells that develop into striated muscles. It is the

160

sarcoma

cancerous tumor arising in connective tissue

161

seminoma

cancerous tumor of the testis

162

teletherapy

radiation therapy in which the radioactive substance is at a distance from the body area being treated

163

teratoma

cancerous tumor of the ovary or testis; can contain embryonic tissues of hair, teeth, bone, or muscle, also called Monster tumor.

164

trismus

pertaining to the inability to open the mouth fully; occurs in patients with oral cancer who undergo a combination of surgery and radiation therapy

165

semin

seed

166

Wilm's tumor

cancerous tumor of the kidney occurring mainly in children

167

xerostomia

condition of dryness of the mouth; oral change caused by radiation therapy or chemotherapy

168

Adeno-CA

adenocarcinoma

169

AFP

alpha-fetoprotein

170

AIDS

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

171

ALL

acute lymphocytic leukemia

172

BRCA

breast cancer gene

173

BSE

breast self-examination

174

Bx

biopsy

175

CA

cancer

176

CA-125

cancer antigen 125

177

chemo

chemotherapy

178

CLL

chronic lymphocytic leukemia

179

CT

computed tomography

180

FNA

fine needle aspiration

181

HD

Hodgkin's disease

182

KS

Kaposi's sarcoma

183

PSA

prostate specific antigen

184

TSE

testicular self examiniation

185

TSE

testicular self examiniation

186

dosimetrist

a radiation physicist

187

Unsealed radiation therapy

a form of internal radiation; radioactive iodine-131, radioactive phosphorus-32, and radioactive gold-198 are some of the substances used

188

tetrat

CF = monster

189

Oncogenic

Pertaining to the formation of cancerous tumors

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Neoplasm

New thing formed

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Excessive formation and growth of normal cells

Hyperplasia

192

-blast

Immature cell

193

myel-

Bone marrow

194

Encapsulated

Enclosed within a site, sheath, or capsule.