Flashcards in Chapter 6: Skeletal System Deck (165):
coccyg/e or coccyg/o
Finger or toe
Lamina (thin plate)
Bending, curve, swayback
Loin, lower back
The human skeleton is made up of how many bones?
What are the primary functions of bones?
Primary organs of the skeletal system. Composed of 50% water and 50% solid matter.
Provide shape, support, and the framework of the body.
Provide protection for internal organs.
Play an important role in the formation of blood cells (hematopoiesis)
Provide areas for the attachment of skeletal muscles.
Help make movement possible through articulation.
Primary function of cartilage?
Forms the major portion of the embryonic skeleton and part of the skeleton in adults.
Primary function of tendons?
Attach muscles to bones, consist of connective tissue.
Bands of fibrous connective tissue that connect bones, cartilage, and other structures; also serve as a place for attachment of fascia.
The solid matter in bones that is calcified and rigid.
The intracellular substance of bone that makes up the osteosarcoma tissue.
What are the classifications of bones?
Flat, long, short, irregular, sesamoid, sutural or wormian.
Ribs, scapula parts of the pelvic girdle, bones of the skull.
Tibia, femur, humerous, radius
Vertebrae, ossicles of the ear.
Sutural or Wormian
Between the flat bones of the skull.
The process where bone cells deposit organic substances in the spaces vacated by cartilage to form bone matrix.
The ends of developing bone.
The shaft of a long bone.
The fibrous vascular membrane that forms the covering of bones except at their articular surfaces.
The dense, hard layer of bone tissue.
The narrow space or cavity throughout the length of the diaphysis.
A tough, connective tissue membrane lining the medullary canal and containing the bone marrow.
Cancellous or spongy bone
The reticular network that makes up most of the volume of bone.
Also known as the growth plate or physics. It is a thin disc of hyaline cartilage positioned between the epiphysis and diaphysis. Once growth is complete this becomes the epiphyseal line.
Is the place where two or more bones connect.
The three classifications of joints?
Synarthrosis (fibrous), amphiarthrosis (cartilaginous), and diarthrosis (synovial)
Does not permit movement. The bones are in close contact with each other, but there is no joint activity. Ex. Cranial suture
Permits very slight movement. Ex. Vertebra
Allows free movement in a variety of directions. Ex. Knee, hip, elbow, wrist, foot.
Bending a limb.
Straightening a flexed limb.
Moving a body part in a circular motion.
Moving a body part away from the middle.
Moving a body part toward the middle.
Moving a body part forward.
Moving a body part backward.
Bending a body part backward.
Moving a body part away from you
Lying face downward, also turning the palm downward.
Lying face upward and also turning the palm or foot upward.
Consists of the first 7 vertebrae.
Consists of the next 12 vertebrae.
Consists of the next 5 vertebrae.
Consists of the sacrum and coccyx.
This happens in children who are beginning to walk and have a pot-bellied stance. A posture that usually disappears around age 5.
A male pelvis (android) has a more narrow outlet than a female pelvis (gynecoid), due to a male not giving birth. The male pelvis is shaped like a funnel and a female more like a basin.
Closed or simple fracture
A completely internal break that does not involve a break in the skin.
Open or compound fracture
The fracture projects through the skin and there is a possibility of infection or hemorrhage.
Only one side of the shaft is broken, and the other side is bent. This usually occurs in children whose long bones have not fully ossified.
A break in the distal portion of the radius. Often a result of reaching out to cushion a fall.
Occurs at the ankle and affects both bones of the lower leg. (fibula and tibia)
Abnormal condition of stiffening of the joint.
Surgical procedure to remove joint fluid; may be used as a diagnostic tool or as part of a treatment plan
Surgical instrument used to examine the interior of a joint.
Inflammation of a bursa.
Pertaining to the heel bone.
Pertaining to the wrist bones. There are two rows of four bones for a total of eight wrist bones.
Carpel tunnel syndrome
Abnormal condition caused by compression of the median nerve by the carpal ligament due to injury or trauma to the area.
Specialized type of fibrous connective tissue found at the ends of bone. Forms the major portions of the embryonic skeleton before birth.
Pertaining to cartilage.
Pertaining to the coccyx or tail bone.
Pertaining to the rib.
Medical term for fingerprint.
Process of holding or fastening in a fixed position; making rigid, immobilizing.
Medical term for knock-knee.
Hereditary metabolic disease that is a form of acute arthritis, which is marked by joint inflammation. It is caused by hyperuricemia. (Excessive amounts of uric acid in the blood and deposits of urates of sodium) in and around the joints. It usually affect the great toe first, but can be seen in the finger, knee, elbow or foot joints.
Medical term for the big or great toe.
Pertaining to the space between two ribs.
Condition in which the normal thoracic curvature becomes exaggerated, producing a "humpback" appearance.
Band of fibrous connective tissue that connects bones, cartilage, and other structures; also serves as a place for the attachment of fascia.
An abnormal anterior curvature of the lumbar spine. This is referred to as swayback because the abdomen and buttocks protrude due to an exaggerated lumbar curvature.
Pertaining to the lower jawbone.
Crescent-shaped interarticular fibrocartilage structure found in certain joints, especially the lateral and medial menisci of the knee joint.
Pertaining to the elbow.
Inflammation of the bone and joint.
Formation of bone.
Softening of bones
Abnormal condition characterized by a decrease in the density of bones, decreasing their strength and causing fragile bones, which can result in fractures.
Malignant tumour of the bone; cancer arising from connective tissue.
Pertaining to the bones of the fingers and the toes.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
Chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of the joints, stiffness, pain, and swelling, which results in crippling deformities.
Abnormal condition that can occur in children and is caused by a lack of vitamin D.
Pertaining to the shoulder blade.
An abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Inflammation of the tendon.
Process of drawing or pulling on bones or muscles to relieve displacement and facilitate healing.
Literally means resembling a sword. The lowest portion of the sternum.
Diagnostic examination of a joint, usually a knee in which air and then a raidiopaque contrast medium are injected into a joint space, x-rays are taken and internal injuries of the meniscus, cartilage, and ligaments can be seen.
Process of examining internal structures of a joint via an arthroscope, usually done after an arthrography and before joint surgey.
Dual-energy x-Ray absorptiometry scan (DXA)
Test used to measure bone mass or bone mineral density; used for diagnosing osteoporosis
Measurement of joint movements, especially ROM and angles via a goniometer.
Process of recording heat patterns of a body's surface; can be used to investigate the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis.
Bone mineral density test (BMD)
Test used to measure bone mass or bone mineral density.
Uric acid blood test
Uric acid is increased in gout, arthritis, multiple myeloma, and rheumatism.
Bone mineral density test
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
Non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs
Partial weight bearing
Range of motion
Rounded projection that enters into the formation of a joint, articulation. Ex. Shoulder
Opening in the bone for blood vessels, ligaments, and nerves. Ex. Pelvic bone
Air cavity within certain bones