Chapter 6: Skeletal System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Chapter 6: Skeletal System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 6: Skeletal System Deck (165):
1

acetabul/o

Acetabulum

2

acr/o

extremity

3

ankyl/o

Stiffening, crooked

4

burs/o

A pouch

5

calcan/e

Heel bone

6

carcin/o

Cancer

7

carp/o

Wrist

8

cartilagin/o

Cartilage

9

chondr/o

Cartilage

10

clavicul/o

Clavicle, collarbone

11

coccyg/e or coccyg/o

Coccyx, tailbone

12

coll/a

Glue

13

cost/o

Rib

14

crani/o

Skull

15

dactyl/o

Finger or toe

16

femor/o

Femur

17

fibul/o

Fibula

18

fixat/o

Fastened

19

humer/o

Humerus

20

ili/o

Illium

21

isch/I

Ischium, hip

22

kyph/o

A hump

23

lamin/o

Lamina (thin plate)

24

lord/o

Bending, curve, swayback

25

lumb/o

Loin, lower back

26

mandibul/o

Lower jawbone

27

maxill/o

Jawbone

28

menisc/i

Crescent

29

myel/o

Bone

30

oste/o

Bone

31

patell/o

Kneecap

32

ped/o

Foot

33

phalang/e

Phalanges

34

rach/I

Spine

35

rad/i

Radius

36

rheumat/o

Discharge

37

radi/o

X-ray

38

sacr/o

Sacrum

39

sarc/o

Flesh

40

scapul/o

Shoulder blade

41

scoli/o

Curvature

42

spin/o

Spine

43

spondyl/o

Vertebra

44

stern/o

Sternum, breastbone

45

tendon/o

Tendon

46

tibi/o

Tibia

47

tract/o

To draw

48

uln/o

Ulna, elbow

49

vertebr/o

Vertebra

50

xiph/o

Sword

51

The human skeleton is made up of how many bones?

206

52

What are the primary functions of bones?

Primary organs of the skeletal system. Composed of 50% water and 50% solid matter.
Provide shape, support, and the framework of the body.
Provide protection for internal organs.
Play an important role in the formation of blood cells (hematopoiesis)
Provide areas for the attachment of skeletal muscles.
Help make movement possible through articulation.

53

Primary function of cartilage?

Forms the major portion of the embryonic skeleton and part of the skeleton in adults.

54

Primary function of tendons?

Attach muscles to bones, consist of connective tissue.

55

Ligaments (lig)

Bands of fibrous connective tissue that connect bones, cartilage, and other structures; also serve as a place for attachment of fascia.

56

Osseous tissue

The solid matter in bones that is calcified and rigid.

57

Matrix

The intracellular substance of bone that makes up the osteosarcoma tissue.

58

What are the classifications of bones?

Flat, long, short, irregular, sesamoid, sutural or wormian.

59

Flat bones

Ribs, scapula parts of the pelvic girdle, bones of the skull.

60

Long bones

Tibia, femur, humerous, radius

61

Short bones

Carpals, tarsals

62

Irregular bones

Vertebrae, ossicles of the ear.

63

Sesamoid bones

Patella

64

Sutural or Wormian

Between the flat bones of the skull.

65

Osteoblasts

Bone-forming cells

66

Endochondral ossification

The process where bone cells deposit organic substances in the spaces vacated by cartilage to form bone matrix.

67

Epiphysis

The ends of developing bone.

68

Diaphysis

The shaft of a long bone.

69

Periosteum

The fibrous vascular membrane that forms the covering of bones except at their articular surfaces.

70

Compact bone

The dense, hard layer of bone tissue.

71

Medullary canal

The narrow space or cavity throughout the length of the diaphysis.

72

Endosteum

A tough, connective tissue membrane lining the medullary canal and containing the bone marrow.

73

Cancellous or spongy bone

The reticular network that makes up most of the volume of bone.

74

Epiphyseal plate

Also known as the growth plate or physics. It is a thin disc of hyaline cartilage positioned between the epiphysis and diaphysis. Once growth is complete this becomes the epiphyseal line.

75

Joint (jt)

Is the place where two or more bones connect.

76

The three classifications of joints?

Synarthrosis (fibrous), amphiarthrosis (cartilaginous), and diarthrosis (synovial)

77

Synarthrosis (fibrous)

Does not permit movement. The bones are in close contact with each other, but there is no joint activity. Ex. Cranial suture

78

Amphiarthrosis (cartilaginous)

Permits very slight movement. Ex. Vertebra

79

Diarthrosis (synovial)

Allows free movement in a variety of directions. Ex. Knee, hip, elbow, wrist, foot.

80

Flexion

Bending a limb.

81

Extension

Straightening a flexed limb.

82

Circumduction

Moving a body part in a circular motion.

83

Abduction

Moving a body part away from the middle.

84

Adduction

Moving a body part toward the middle.

85

Protraction

Moving a body part forward.

86

Retraction

Moving a body part backward.

87

Dorsiflexion

Bending a body part backward.

88

Plantarflexion

Moving a body part away from you

89

Pronation

Lying face downward, also turning the palm downward.

90

Supination

Lying face upward and also turning the palm or foot upward.

91

Cervical curve

Consists of the first 7 vertebrae.

92

Thoracic curve

Consists of the next 12 vertebrae.

93

Lumbar curve

Consists of the next 5 vertebrae.

94

Sacral curve

Consists of the sacrum and coccyx.

95

Lumbar lordosis

This happens in children who are beginning to walk and have a pot-bellied stance. A posture that usually disappears around age 5.

96

Pelvic differences.

A male pelvis (android) has a more narrow outlet than a female pelvis (gynecoid), due to a male not giving birth. The male pelvis is shaped like a funnel and a female more like a basin.

97

Closed or simple fracture

A completely internal break that does not involve a break in the skin.

98

Open or compound fracture

The fracture projects through the skin and there is a possibility of infection or hemorrhage.

99

Greenstick fracture

Only one side of the shaft is broken, and the other side is bent. This usually occurs in children whose long bones have not fully ossified.

100

Colles' fracture

A break in the distal portion of the radius. Often a result of reaching out to cushion a fall.

101

Pott's fracture

Occurs at the ankle and affects both bones of the lower leg. (fibula and tibia)

102

Ankylosis

Abnormal condition of stiffening of the joint.

103

Arthralgia

Joint pain

104

Arthrocentesis

Surgical procedure to remove joint fluid; may be used as a diagnostic tool or as part of a treatment plan

105

Arthroscope

Surgical instrument used to examine the interior of a joint.

106

Bursitis

Inflammation of a bursa.

107

Calcaneal

Pertaining to the heel bone.

108

Carpal

Pertaining to the wrist bones. There are two rows of four bones for a total of eight wrist bones.

109

Carpel tunnel syndrome

Abnormal condition caused by compression of the median nerve by the carpal ligament due to injury or trauma to the area.

110

Cartilage

Specialized type of fibrous connective tissue found at the ends of bone. Forms the major portions of the embryonic skeleton before birth.

111

Chondral

Pertaining to cartilage.

112

Coccygeal

Pertaining to the coccyx or tail bone.

113

Costal

Pertaining to the rib.

114

Dactylogram

Medical term for fingerprint.

115

Fixation

Process of holding or fastening in a fixed position; making rigid, immobilizing.

116

Genu valgum

Medical term for knock-knee.

117

Gout

Hereditary metabolic disease that is a form of acute arthritis, which is marked by joint inflammation. It is caused by hyperuricemia. (Excessive amounts of uric acid in the blood and deposits of urates of sodium) in and around the joints. It usually affect the great toe first, but can be seen in the finger, knee, elbow or foot joints.

118

Hallux

Medical term for the big or great toe.

119

Intercostals

Pertaining to the space between two ribs.

120

Kyphosis

Condition in which the normal thoracic curvature becomes exaggerated, producing a "humpback" appearance.

121

Ligament (lig)

Band of fibrous connective tissue that connects bones, cartilage, and other structures; also serves as a place for the attachment of fascia.

122

Lordosis

An abnormal anterior curvature of the lumbar spine. This is referred to as swayback because the abdomen and buttocks protrude due to an exaggerated lumbar curvature.

123

Mandibular

Pertaining to the lower jawbone.

124

Meniscus

Crescent-shaped interarticular fibrocartilage structure found in certain joints, especially the lateral and medial menisci of the knee joint.

125

Olecranal

Pertaining to the elbow.

126

Osteoarthritis (OA)

Inflammation of the bone and joint.

127

Osteoblasts

Bone-forming cell

128

Osteogenesis

Formation of bone.

129

Osteomalacia

Softening of bones

130

Osteoporosis

Abnormal condition characterized by a decrease in the density of bones, decreasing their strength and causing fragile bones, which can result in fractures.

131

Osteosarcoma

Malignant tumour of the bone; cancer arising from connective tissue.

132

Phalangeal

Pertaining to the bones of the fingers and the toes.

133

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

Chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of the joints, stiffness, pain, and swelling, which results in crippling deformities.

134

Rickets

Abnormal condition that can occur in children and is caused by a lack of vitamin D.

135

Scapular

Pertaining to the shoulder blade.

136

Scoliosis

An abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.

137

Tendinitis

Inflammation of the tendon.

138

Traction (Tx)

Process of drawing or pulling on bones or muscles to relieve displacement and facilitate healing.

139

Xiphoid

Literally means resembling a sword. The lowest portion of the sternum.

140

Arthrography

Diagnostic examination of a joint, usually a knee in which air and then a raidiopaque contrast medium are injected into a joint space, x-rays are taken and internal injuries of the meniscus, cartilage, and ligaments can be seen.

141

Arthroscopy

Process of examining internal structures of a joint via an arthroscope, usually done after an arthrography and before joint surgey.

142

Dual-energy x-Ray absorptiometry scan (DXA)

Test used to measure bone mass or bone mineral density; used for diagnosing osteoporosis

143

Goniometry

Measurement of joint movements, especially ROM and angles via a goniometer.

144

Thermography

Process of recording heat patterns of a body's surface; can be used to investigate the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis.

145

Bone mineral density test (BMD)

Test used to measure bone mass or bone mineral density.

146

Uric acid blood test

Uric acid is increased in gout, arthritis, multiple myeloma, and rheumatism.

147

ANA

Antinuclear antibodies

148

BMD

Bone mineral density test

149

Ca

Calcium

150

Fx

Fracture

151

JRA

Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

152

jt

Joint

153

KJ

Knee jerk

154

lig

Ligament

155

NSAIDs

Non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs

156

OA

Osteoarthritis

157

PWB

Partial weight bearing

158

RA

Rheumatoid arthritis

159

ROM

Range of motion

160

TMJ

Temporomandibular joint

161

Tx

Traction

162

Condyle

Rounded projection that enters into the formation of a joint, articulation. Ex. Shoulder

163

Foramen

Opening in the bone for blood vessels, ligaments, and nerves. Ex. Pelvic bone

164

Sinus

Air cavity within certain bones

165

Trochanter

Either of the two bony projections below the neck of the femur.