Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (119):
1

adip/o

fat

2

andr/o

man

3

anter/o

towards the front

4

bi/o

life

5

caud/o

tail

6

cran/i

cranium

7

cyt/o

cell

8

dist/o

away from the point of origin

9

dors/o

backward

10

hist/o

tissue

11

hydr/o

water

12

infer/o

below

13

inguin/o

groin, inguinal

14

kary/o

cell's nucleus

15

later/o

side

16

medi/o

towards the middle

17

organ/o

organ

18

path/o

disease

19

phen/o

to show

20

physi/o

nature

21

poster/o

behind, towards the back, back

22

proxim/o

near the point of origin

23

somat/o

body

24

ventr/o

near or on the belly side of the body

25

viscer/o

body organs, visceral

26

homeostasis

A state of internal balance. A state of equilibrium that is maintained within the body's internal environment.

27

atom

The smallest, most basic chemical unit of an element. It consists of a nucleus that contains protons and neutrons and is surrounded by electrons.

28

proton

A positively charged particle.

29

neutron

A particle without any electrical charge.

30

electron

A negatively charged particle that revolves about the nucleus of an atom.

31

element

A substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into any other substance.

32

What are the 8 levels of body organization?

Atom, molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism.

33

Examples of atoms?

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen.

34

Example of molecules?

Sugars, proteins, water.

35

Examples of organelles?

Mitochondrian, nucleus, ribosome

36

Examples of cells?

Epithelial cells, nerve cells, muscle cells.

37

Examples of tissues?

Epithelial tissue, nervous tissue, muscle tissue, connective tissue.

38

Examples of organs?

Lung, brain, stomach, kidney.

39

Examples of organ systems?

Respiratory system, nervous system, digestive system, circulatory system.

40

Example of an organism?

Human.

41

Molecule

A chemical combination of two or more atoms of the same element that form a specific chemical compound.

42

Water

The ideal transportation medium for inorganic and organic compounds.

43

Cells

The basic building blocks for the various structures that together make up a human being.

44

Cell membrane

The outer covering of the cell. It allows some substances in the cell and keeps others out. This allows the cells to get nutrition and dispose of wastes.

45

Ribosomes

Make enzymes and other proteins; nicknamed "protein factories"

46

Nucleus

Controls every organelle, and is responsible for the cell's metabolism, growth, and reproduction.
DNA is in the nucleus.

47

Stem cell

The precursors of all body cells. They are able to divide and renew themselves for long periods of time.

48

Tissue

A group of similar cells that perform specialized functions.

49

4 basic types of tissue?

Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nerve.

50

What are the 11 organ systems of the body?

Reproductive, urinary, digestive, respiratory, blood and lymphatic, cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, muscular, skeletal, integumentary.

51

Organ

Multiple different tissues serving a common purpose or function.

52

Isotope

An atom with the same number of protons, but differ in the number of neutrons.

53

Cytoplasm

The fluid of the cell.

54

Endoplasmic reticulum

Carries proteins and other substances through the cytoplasm.

55

Metabolism

The sum total of all activities inside of the living cell.

56

Anabolism

The building up of the body substance in the construction phase of metabolism

57

Catabolism

A "casting down", in metabolism a breaking down of a complex substance into more basic elements.

58

Golgi apparatus

"Post office" of the cell, it chemically processes the molecules from the ER and then packages them into vesicles

59

Mitochondria

The power plants of the cell, involved in cellular metabolism and respiration, provides the principle source of cellular energy.

60

Epithelial cells

Appear in sheet like arrangements, sometimes several lady's thick, that form the outer surfaces of the body and line the body cavities.

61

6 main fictions of epithelial cells

Protection, sensation, absorption, excretion, diffusion.

62

Connective tissue

Most abundant of the body tissue. Supports the organs and connects muscles to bones, and bones to joints.

63

3 main types of muscle tissue

Skeletal, smooth, and cardiac

64

Skeletal muscle

Voluntary muscle satiated in appearance and is anchored by tendons and bones.

65

Smooth muscle

Involuntary muscle found within the walls of organs and structures

66

Cardiac muscle

An involuntary muscle and is a specialized form of striated tissue found only in the heart

67

Nerve tissue

Consists of nerve cells (neurons) and supporting cells called neuroglia. Controls and coordinates the activities of the body.

68

System

A group of different organs functioning together for a common purpose.

69

Embryonic cell

An unspecialized cell that can turn itself into any type of tissue.

70

Erythrocytes

Red blood cells that do not have a nucleus and die every four months

71

Anatomical position

It is a position of the body that is erect, head facing forward, arms by the side and palms to the front.

72

Lysosomes

The "digestive bags" of the cell

73

Superior

Above, in an upward direction, toward the head

74

Inferior

Below or in a downward direction, more toward the feet or tail

75

Anterior (ventral)

In front of or before, the front side of the body

76

Posterior (dorsal)

Toward the back,me back side of the body

77

Cephalic

Pertaining to the head

78

Caudal

Pertaining to the tail, inferior in position.

79

Medial

Nearest the midline or middle

80

Lateral

To the side, away from the middle

81

Proximal

Nearest the point of attachment or near the beginning of a structure

82

Distal

Away from the point of attachment or far from the beginning of a structure

83

Midsagittal plane

Vertically divides the body as it passes through the midline to form a right and left half

84

Transverse or horizontal plane

Divides the body into superior and inferior portions

85

Coronal or frontal plane

Any place that divides the body at right angles to the midsagittal plane. The coronal plane divides the body into anterior and posterior portions.

86

Cavity

A hollow space containing body organs

87

Ventral or anterior cavity

Extends from the neck to the pelvis. It's areas are the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic area

88

Dorsal or posterior cavity

Contains the structures of the nervous system. It includes the cranial and spinal cavities

89

Abdoninopelvic cavity

Combines the abdominal and pelvic cavities and is divided into 9 regions

90

Right hypochondriac region

Upper right region at the level of the 9th rib cartilage

91

Left hypochondriac region

Upper left region at the level of the 9th rib cartilage

92

Epigastric region

Region over the stomach

93

Right lumbar

Right middle lateral region

94

Left lumbar

Left middle lateral region

95

Umbilical region

In the center , between the right and left lumbar region, at the navel

96

Right iliac or inguinal

Right lower lateral region

97

Left iliac or inguinal region

Left lower lateral region

98

Hypogastric

Lower middle region below the navel

99

4 quadrants of the abdomen

RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ

100

tars/o

Ankle

101

bucc/o

Cheek

102

thorac/o

Chest

103

ot/o

Ear

104

Cubical;olecran/o

Elbow

105

dactyl/o

Finger

106

pod/o

Foot

107

manus;chir/o

Hand

108

coxa

Hip or hip joint

109

crur/o

Leg

110

umbilic/o;omphal/o

Navel

111

neur/o

Nerves

112

cost/o

Ribs

113

pollex

Thumb

114

lingu/o;gloss/o

Tongue

115

carp/o

Wrist

116

Ambilateral

Pertaining to both sides

117

Contralateral

Opposite sides

118

Ipsilateral

On the same side

119

Apex

The pointed end of the heart