Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (119):
towards the front
away from the point of origin
towards the middle
behind, towards the back, back
near the point of origin
near or on the belly side of the body
body organs, visceral
A state of internal balance. A state of equilibrium that is maintained within the body's internal environment.
The smallest, most basic chemical unit of an element. It consists of a nucleus that contains protons and neutrons and is surrounded by electrons.
A positively charged particle.
A particle without any electrical charge.
A negatively charged particle that revolves about the nucleus of an atom.
A substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into any other substance.
What are the 8 levels of body organization?
Atom, molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism.
Examples of atoms?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen.
Example of molecules?
Sugars, proteins, water.
Examples of organelles?
Mitochondrian, nucleus, ribosome
Examples of cells?
Epithelial cells, nerve cells, muscle cells.
Examples of tissues?
Epithelial tissue, nervous tissue, muscle tissue, connective tissue.
Examples of organs?
Lung, brain, stomach, kidney.
Examples of organ systems?
Respiratory system, nervous system, digestive system, circulatory system.
Example of an organism?
A chemical combination of two or more atoms of the same element that form a specific chemical compound.
The ideal transportation medium for inorganic and organic compounds.
The basic building blocks for the various structures that together make up a human being.
The outer covering of the cell. It allows some substances in the cell and keeps others out. This allows the cells to get nutrition and dispose of wastes.
Make enzymes and other proteins; nicknamed "protein factories"
Controls every organelle, and is responsible for the cell's metabolism, growth, and reproduction.
DNA is in the nucleus.
The precursors of all body cells. They are able to divide and renew themselves for long periods of time.
A group of similar cells that perform specialized functions.
4 basic types of tissue?
Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nerve.
What are the 11 organ systems of the body?
Reproductive, urinary, digestive, respiratory, blood and lymphatic, cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, muscular, skeletal, integumentary.
Multiple different tissues serving a common purpose or function.
An atom with the same number of protons, but differ in the number of neutrons.
The fluid of the cell.
Carries proteins and other substances through the cytoplasm.
The sum total of all activities inside of the living cell.
The building up of the body substance in the construction phase of metabolism
A "casting down", in metabolism a breaking down of a complex substance into more basic elements.
"Post office" of the cell, it chemically processes the molecules from the ER and then packages them into vesicles
The power plants of the cell, involved in cellular metabolism and respiration, provides the principle source of cellular energy.
Appear in sheet like arrangements, sometimes several lady's thick, that form the outer surfaces of the body and line the body cavities.
6 main fictions of epithelial cells
Protection, sensation, absorption, excretion, diffusion.
Most abundant of the body tissue. Supports the organs and connects muscles to bones, and bones to joints.
3 main types of muscle tissue
Skeletal, smooth, and cardiac
Voluntary muscle satiated in appearance and is anchored by tendons and bones.
Involuntary muscle found within the walls of organs and structures
An involuntary muscle and is a specialized form of striated tissue found only in the heart
Consists of nerve cells (neurons) and supporting cells called neuroglia. Controls and coordinates the activities of the body.
A group of different organs functioning together for a common purpose.
An unspecialized cell that can turn itself into any type of tissue.
Red blood cells that do not have a nucleus and die every four months
It is a position of the body that is erect, head facing forward, arms by the side and palms to the front.
The "digestive bags" of the cell
Above, in an upward direction, toward the head
Below or in a downward direction, more toward the feet or tail
In front of or before, the front side of the body
Toward the back,me back side of the body
Pertaining to the head
Pertaining to the tail, inferior in position.
Nearest the midline or middle
To the side, away from the middle
Nearest the point of attachment or near the beginning of a structure
Away from the point of attachment or far from the beginning of a structure
Vertically divides the body as it passes through the midline to form a right and left half
Transverse or horizontal plane
Divides the body into superior and inferior portions
Coronal or frontal plane
Any place that divides the body at right angles to the midsagittal plane. The coronal plane divides the body into anterior and posterior portions.
A hollow space containing body organs
Ventral or anterior cavity
Extends from the neck to the pelvis. It's areas are the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic area
Dorsal or posterior cavity
Contains the structures of the nervous system. It includes the cranial and spinal cavities
Combines the abdominal and pelvic cavities and is divided into 9 regions
Right hypochondriac region
Upper right region at the level of the 9th rib cartilage
Left hypochondriac region
Upper left region at the level of the 9th rib cartilage
Region over the stomach
Right middle lateral region
Left middle lateral region
In the center , between the right and left lumbar region, at the navel
Right iliac or inguinal
Right lower lateral region
Left iliac or inguinal region
Left lower lateral region
Lower middle region below the navel
4 quadrants of the abdomen
RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ
Hip or hip joint
Pertaining to both sides
On the same side