Chapter 12: Urinary System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Chapter 12: Urinary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 12: Urinary System Deck (108):
1

albumin/o

Protein, plasma

2

col/o

Colon

3

corpor/e

Body

4

*cyst/o

Bladder

5

*excret/o

Sifted out

6

glomerul/o

Glomerulus, little ball

7

glycos/o

Glucose, sugar

8

keton/o

Ketone

9

*lith/o

Stone;breakdown of fats and sugars

10

*meat/o

Passage, opening

11

*micturit/o

To urinate

12

*perine/o

Perineum, episiotomy

13

*periton/e

Peritoneum

14

*pyel/o

Renal pelvis

15

*ren/o

Kidney

16

ur/o

Urine, urinate, urination

17

ureter/o

Ureter

18

urethr/o

Urethra

19

urin/o

Urine

20

Urinary System

Consists of two kidneys, two ureters, and one bladder

21

Kidneys

They produce urine and help to regulate and control body fluids. Purplish-brown, bean-shaped organs located behind the abdominal cavity (retroperitoneal area) on either side of the spine between the thoracic vertebrae and the lumbar region.

22

Ureters

Transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

23

Urinary bladder

It is the muscular, membranous sac that serves as a reservoir for urine. 700-800 mL

24

Renal fascia

Is a sheath of fibrous tissue that helps to anchor the kidney to the surrounding structures and helps to maintain its normal position.

25

Nephron

The vital function is to regulate, control, and then remove the waste products of metabolism from the blood plasma. I million nephrons are in the kidney.

26

Renal corpuscle

Consists of a glomerulus and a Bowman's capsule.

27

Glomerulus

The tuft of blood vessels that is surrounded by the Bowman's capsule.

28

Bowman's capsule

A cup-like sac at the beginning of the tubular component of a nephron in the kidney that performs the first step in the filtration of blood to form urine.

29

hilum

The notch in the centre of the concave border of the kidney. The renal artery and vein, nerves, and lymphatic vessels enter and leave through the hilum.

30

Cross-section of the kidney

Consists of cortex, or outer layer, and the medulla, which is the inner layer.

31

Medulla

This is composed of the renal pyramids, conelike masses with papillae projecting into the calyces of the pelvis.

32

ureter

Narrow, muscular tubes that drain urine from the kidneys into the bladder.

33

trigone

The small triangular area near the base of the bladder between the openings of the two ureters and the opening of the urethra.

34

Urethra

The musculomembranous tube extending from the bladder to the outside off the body.

35

Urinary meatus

The external urinary opening

36

Urine formation

By the process of filtration and reabsorption in the nephron.

37

Urinary tract infections (UTIs)

Common in children, symptoms include fever, wt. loss, nausea, and vomiting, increased urination, foul-smelling urine, persistent diaper rash, and failure to thrive. Older children have the same sym. with frequent urination, hematuria, bed-wetting episodes.

38

Urge incontinence

Inability to retain urine volume, it is the leakage of urine due to bladder muscles that contract inappropriately.

39

Catheterization

The process of introducing a catheter through the urethra into the bladder for withdrawal of urine

40

Albuminuria

Protein in the urine, may indicate a leak in the glomerular membrane

41

Antidiuretic

Pertaining to a medication that decreases urine production and secretion.

42

Auria

Without the formation of urine, lack of urine production

43

Calciuria

Calcium in the urine

44

Calculus

Pebble, any abnormal concert ion, plural calculi

45

Cystocele

Hernia of the bladder that protrudes into the vagina

46

Cystodynia/cystalgia

Pain in the bladder

47

Cystogram

X-ray record of the bladder.

48

Cystolithectomy

Surgical excision of a stone from the bladder.

49

Dialysis

Medical procedure to separate waste material from the blood and to maintain fluid, electrolyte,and acid-base balance in impaired kidney function or in the absence of,the kidney.

50

Dysuria

Difficult or painful urination

51

Enuresis

Condition of involuntary emission of urine; bed wetting.

52

Excretory

Pertaining to the elimination of waste products from the body

53

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotriptor (ESWL)

Medical device used to crush kidney stones.

54

-triptor

Device

55

Hemodialysis (HD)

Use of an artificial kidney to separate waste from the blood.

56

Hydronephrosis

Pathological condition in which urine collects in the renal pelvis because of an obstructed outflow, forming distension and damage to the kidney. Can be caused by renal calculi, tumor, or hyperplasia of the prostate gland.

57

Incontinence

Inability to hold or control urination or defecation.

58

Lithotripsy

Crushing of a kidney stone.

59

Meatotomy

Incision of the urinary meatus to enlarge the opening.

60

Meatus

Opening or passage; the external opening of the urethra.

61

Micturition

Urination

62

Nephroma

Kidney tumor

63

Nephron

Basic structural functional unit of the kidney.

64

Nephrosclerosis

Condition of hardening of the kidney.

65

Nocturia

Urination during the night.

66

Oliguria

Scanty, decreased amount of urine.

67

Peritoneal dialysis

Separation of waste from the blood by using a peritoneal catheter and dialysis.

68

Polyuria

Excessive secretion and discharge of urine.

69

Pyelonephritis

Inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis

70

Renal failure

Pathological failure of the kidney to function.

71

Renin

Enzyme produced by the kidney that stimulates vasoconstriction and secretion of aldosterone.

72

Stricture

Abnormal narrowing of a duct or passage such as the esophagus, ureter, or urethra.

73

Trigonitis

Inflammation of the trigone of the bladder. More common in women there is no solid treatment

74

Uremia

Excess of urea, creatinine, and other nitrogenous end products of protein and amino acid metabolism accumulated in the blood. Associated with end-stage renal failure.

75

Urgency

Sudden need to void, urinate

76

Urinalysis (UA)

Analysis of urine; separating of the urine for examination to determine the presence of abnormal elements

77

Urine

Fluid secreted by the kidneys

78

Urobilin

Brown pigment formed by the oxidation of urobilinogen; may be formed in the urine after exposure to air

79

Urochrome

Pigment that gives urine the normal yellow color.

80

Urologist

Physician who specializes in the study of the urinary system.

81

Urology

The study of the urinary system

82

Void

To empty the bladder

83

Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

Blood test to determine the amount of urea excreted by the kidneys. Abnormal results indicate renal dysfunction.

84

Culture, urine

Urine test to determine the presence of micro organisms. Abnormal results indicate urinary tract infection.

85

Cystoscopy

Visual examination of the bladder and urethra via a lighted cystoscope.

86

Intravenous pyelography (pyelogram)(IVP)

Test to visualize the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. A raidopaque substance is intravenously injected, and x-rays are taken. Abnormal results can indicate renal calculus, kidney or bladder tumours, and kidney disease.

87

Kidney, ureter, bladder (KUB)

With the patient supine a flat plate x-Ray is taken of the abdomen to indicate the size and position of the kidney, ureters, and bladder.

88

Retrograde pyelography (RP)

X-ray recording of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder following the injection of a contrast medium backward through a urinary catheter into the ureters. Useful in locating urinary stones and obstructions.

89

ARF

Acute renal failure

90

BUN

Blood, urea, nitrogen

91

CRF

Chronic renal failure

92

ESRD

End-stage renal disease

93

GU

Genitourinary

94

HD

Hemodialysis

95

H2O

Water

96

IVP

Intravenous pyelogram

97

K

Potassium

98

KUB

Kidney,ureter,bladder

99

LOC

Level of consciousness.

100

NH3

Ammonia

101

PD

Peritoneal dialysis

102

UA

Urinalysis

103

UTI

Urinary tract infection

104

ADH

Antidiuretic hormone

105

Renal arteries

Supply oxygenated blood to the kidney

106

Renal veins

Take deoxygenated blood away from the kidney

107

Three steps of urine formation

Filtration, reabsorption, and secretion/excretion

108

Three polys of diabetics

Polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria