Flashcards in Chapter 12: Urinary System Deck (108):
Glomerulus, little ball
Stone;breakdown of fats and sugars
Urine, urinate, urination
Consists of two kidneys, two ureters, and one bladder
They produce urine and help to regulate and control body fluids. Purplish-brown, bean-shaped organs located behind the abdominal cavity (retroperitoneal area) on either side of the spine between the thoracic vertebrae and the lumbar region.
Transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
It is the muscular, membranous sac that serves as a reservoir for urine. 700-800 mL
Is a sheath of fibrous tissue that helps to anchor the kidney to the surrounding structures and helps to maintain its normal position.
The vital function is to regulate, control, and then remove the waste products of metabolism from the blood plasma. I million nephrons are in the kidney.
Consists of a glomerulus and a Bowman's capsule.
The tuft of blood vessels that is surrounded by the Bowman's capsule.
A cup-like sac at the beginning of the tubular component of a nephron in the kidney that performs the first step in the filtration of blood to form urine.
The notch in the centre of the concave border of the kidney. The renal artery and vein, nerves, and lymphatic vessels enter and leave through the hilum.
Cross-section of the kidney
Consists of cortex, or outer layer, and the medulla, which is the inner layer.
This is composed of the renal pyramids, conelike masses with papillae projecting into the calyces of the pelvis.
Narrow, muscular tubes that drain urine from the kidneys into the bladder.
The small triangular area near the base of the bladder between the openings of the two ureters and the opening of the urethra.
The musculomembranous tube extending from the bladder to the outside off the body.
The external urinary opening
By the process of filtration and reabsorption in the nephron.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
Common in children, symptoms include fever, wt. loss, nausea, and vomiting, increased urination, foul-smelling urine, persistent diaper rash, and failure to thrive. Older children have the same sym. with frequent urination, hematuria, bed-wetting episodes.
Inability to retain urine volume, it is the leakage of urine due to bladder muscles that contract inappropriately.
The process of introducing a catheter through the urethra into the bladder for withdrawal of urine
Protein in the urine, may indicate a leak in the glomerular membrane
Pertaining to a medication that decreases urine production and secretion.
Without the formation of urine, lack of urine production
Calcium in the urine
Pebble, any abnormal concert ion, plural calculi
Hernia of the bladder that protrudes into the vagina
Pain in the bladder
X-ray record of the bladder.
Surgical excision of a stone from the bladder.
Medical procedure to separate waste material from the blood and to maintain fluid, electrolyte,and acid-base balance in impaired kidney function or in the absence of,the kidney.
Difficult or painful urination
Condition of involuntary emission of urine; bed wetting.
Pertaining to the elimination of waste products from the body
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotriptor (ESWL)
Medical device used to crush kidney stones.
Use of an artificial kidney to separate waste from the blood.
Pathological condition in which urine collects in the renal pelvis because of an obstructed outflow, forming distension and damage to the kidney. Can be caused by renal calculi, tumor, or hyperplasia of the prostate gland.
Inability to hold or control urination or defecation.
Crushing of a kidney stone.
Incision of the urinary meatus to enlarge the opening.
Opening or passage; the external opening of the urethra.
Basic structural functional unit of the kidney.
Condition of hardening of the kidney.
Urination during the night.
Scanty, decreased amount of urine.
Separation of waste from the blood by using a peritoneal catheter and dialysis.
Excessive secretion and discharge of urine.
Inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis
Pathological failure of the kidney to function.
Enzyme produced by the kidney that stimulates vasoconstriction and secretion of aldosterone.
Abnormal narrowing of a duct or passage such as the esophagus, ureter, or urethra.
Inflammation of the trigone of the bladder. More common in women there is no solid treatment
Excess of urea, creatinine, and other nitrogenous end products of protein and amino acid metabolism accumulated in the blood. Associated with end-stage renal failure.
Sudden need to void, urinate
Analysis of urine; separating of the urine for examination to determine the presence of abnormal elements
Fluid secreted by the kidneys
Brown pigment formed by the oxidation of urobilinogen; may be formed in the urine after exposure to air
Pigment that gives urine the normal yellow color.
Physician who specializes in the study of the urinary system.
The study of the urinary system
To empty the bladder
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
Blood test to determine the amount of urea excreted by the kidneys. Abnormal results indicate renal dysfunction.
Urine test to determine the presence of micro organisms. Abnormal results indicate urinary tract infection.
Visual examination of the bladder and urethra via a lighted cystoscope.
Intravenous pyelography (pyelogram)(IVP)
Test to visualize the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. A raidopaque substance is intravenously injected, and x-rays are taken. Abnormal results can indicate renal calculus, kidney or bladder tumours, and kidney disease.
Kidney, ureter, bladder (KUB)
With the patient supine a flat plate x-Ray is taken of the abdomen to indicate the size and position of the kidney, ureters, and bladder.
Retrograde pyelography (RP)
X-ray recording of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder following the injection of a contrast medium backward through a urinary catheter into the ureters. Useful in locating urinary stones and obstructions.
Acute renal failure
Blood, urea, nitrogen
Chronic renal failure
End-stage renal disease
Level of consciousness.
Urinary tract infection
Supply oxygenated blood to the kidney
Take deoxygenated blood away from the kidney
Three steps of urine formation
Filtration, reabsorption, and secretion/excretion