Chapter 11: Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11: Respiratory System Deck (110):
1

alveol/o

Small, hollow air sac

2

anthrac/o

Coal

3

atel/o

Imperfect

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bronch/i or bronch/o

Bronchi

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bronchiol/o

Bronchiole

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con/i

Dust

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cyan/o

Dark blue

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cyst/o

Sac

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diaphragmat/o

Diaphragm, partition

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halat/o

Breathe

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lob/o

Lobe

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mes/o

Middle

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olfact/o

Smell

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orth/o

Straight

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pectoral/o

Breast, chest

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pleur/o

Air

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pneumon/o or pulmon/o

Lung

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py/o

Pus

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respirat/o

Breathing

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rhin/o

Nose

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rhonch/o

Snore

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spir/o

Breath

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tubercul/o

A little swelling

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Respiratory system

System consisted of nose, pharynx, larynx, bronchi, and lungs

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Nose

Serves as an air passageway, warms and moistens inhaled air, cilia and mucous membrane trap dust, pollen, bacteria, and other foreign matter....

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Pharynx

Passageway for air and for food, contributes to phonation as a chamber where the sound is able to resonate

27

Larynx

Produces vocal sounds, the voicebox . High notes are formed by short,tense vocal cords. Low notes are produced by long, relaxed vocal cords. The nose, the mouth, pharynx, and bony sinuses aid in phonation and the tone that is produced to give each person a distinctive sound.

28

Trachea

Provides an open passageway for air to and from the lungs. It is a semi-cylindrical cartilaginous tube

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Bronchi

Provides a passageway for air to and from the lungs.

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Lungs

Bring air into intimate contact with blood so that the oxygen and carbon dioxide can be exchanged in the alveoli.

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Glottis

A narrow slit at the opening between the true vocal folds.

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Epiglottis

Covers the entrance of the larynx. During swallowing it acts as a lid to prevent aspiration of food into the trachea.

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The bronchi

The two main branches of the trachea, that provide a passage way for air to the lungs. The right bronchus and the left bronchus. The right bronchus is larger and extends down in a more vertical direction than the left bronchus.

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Hilum

The depression that each bronchus enters the lung.

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Lungs

The organs of respiration. Each has an apex that is at the eternal end of the 1st rib, and a base that lies on the diaphragm. Each have lobes. The right lung has 3 lobes and the left has two lobes.

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Alveoli

The air cells where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place

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Surfactant

A substance formed in the lungs that regulates the amount of surface tension of the fluid lining the alveoli.

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Infant Respiratory distress syndrome

In preterm infants, the lack of surfactant.

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Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Lack of surfactant, a substance formed in the lungs that regulates the amount of surface tension of the fluid lining the alveoli.

40

Tidal volume (TV)

Amount of air in a single inspiration and expiration. About 500 mL of air enters during normal quiet breathing

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Vital capacity (VC)

Volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximal inspiration.

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Total Lung Capacity (TLC)

Maximal volume of the air in the lungs after a maximal inspiration.

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Medulla oblongata and the pons

Two of the structures of the brainstem, that regulate and control respiration

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Respiratory rate

Regulated by the respiratory centre in the medulla oblongata
Newborn 30-80
1st year. 20-40
5th year. 20-25
15th year: 15-20
Adult 12 -20

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Alveolus

Pertaining to a small air sac in the lungs

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Anthracosis

Lung condition caused by inhalation of coal and silica, also called black lung

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Apnea

Temporary cessation of breathing.

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|sphyx|

Pulse

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Asthma

Disease of the bronchi characterized by wheezing, dyspnea, and a feeling of constriction in the chest.

50

Atelectasis

The partial collapse of a segment of alveolus decreasing the surface area available for oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange; condition of imperfect dilation of the lung

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Bronchiectasis

Chronic dilation of a bronchus or bronchi with a secondary infection that usually involves the lower portion of the lungs

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Bronchoscope

Medical instrument used to visually examine the bronchi

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-ectasis

Dilation, expansion

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Croup

Acute respiratory disease (ARD) characterized by obstruction of the larynx, a barking cough, dyspnea, hoarseness, and stridor.

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Cyanosis

Abnormal condition of the skin and mucous membrane caused by oxygen deficiency in the blood.

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Cystic fibrosis (CF)

Inherited disease that affects the entire body, causing progressive disability and often early death

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Dysphonia

Condition of difficulty speaking. Hoarseness.

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Emphysema

Chronic pulmonary disease in which the alveoli become distended and the alveolar walls become damaged and destroyed, making it difficult to exhale air from the lungs. Primary cause is smoking.

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Epistaxis

Nosebleed

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Eupnea

Good or normal breathing

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Hemoptysis

Spitting up blood.

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-ptysis

To spit

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Hypoxia

Condition of deficient amounts of oxygen in the inspired air

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Inhalation

The process of breathing in

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|halat|

Breathe

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Laryngitis

Inflammation of the larynx

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Laryngoscope

Medical instrument used tonvisuallt examine the larynx

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Lobectomy

Surgical excision of a lobe of any organ or gland

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Olfaction

Process of smelling

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Orthopnea

Inability to breathe unless in an upright or straight position

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Pertussis

Also called whooping cough.

72

Pleurisy

Inflammation of the pleura caused by injury, infection, or a tumor

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Pneumoconiosis

Abnormal condition of the lung caused by the inhalation of dust particles such as coal dust

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Pneumonia

Inflammation of the lung caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or chemical irritants

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Pneumonitis

Inflammation of the lung

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Pneumothorax

A pathological condition in which there is a collection of air between the chest wall and the lungs, causing the lung to collapse

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Polyp

Tumor with a stem; can occur where there are mucous membranes, such as the nose, ears, mouth, uterus, and intestines

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Pyothorax

Pus in the chest cavity

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Rale

Abnormal sound heard on auscultation of the chest; a crackling, rattling,mor dubbling sound

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-or

A doer

81

Rhinoplasty

Surgical repair of the nose

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Rhinorrhea

Discharge from the nose

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Rhonchus

Rale or rattling sound in the throat or bronchial tubes caused by a partial obstruction

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Sarcoidosis

Chronic granulomatous condition that can involve almost any organ system of the body, usually the lungs, causing dyspnea or exertion

85

Sinusitis

Inflammation of the sinus

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Spirometer

Medical instrument used to measure lung volume during inspiration and expiration

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Thoracocentesis

Surgical puncture of the chest wall for removal of fluid; also called thoracentesis

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Tracheostomy

New opening into the trachea

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Tuberculosis

Infectious disease caused by the tubercle bacillus.

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tubercul

A little swelling

91

Acid-fast bacilli

Test performed on sputum to detect the presence of mycobacterium tuberculosis, an acid-fast bacilli. Positive results indicate tuberculosis

92

Bronchoscopy

Visual examination of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi via a flexible bronchoscope

93

Laryngoscopy

Visual examination of the larynx via the laryngoscope.

94

Pulmonary function test

Series of tests performed to determine the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide across the cell membrane in the lungs

95

AFB

Acid-fast bacilli

96

AIDS

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

97

ARDS

Adult respiratory distress syndrome

98

CF

Cystic fibrosis

99

COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

100

CXR

Chest x-ray

101

ENT

Ear, nose, and throat

102

ET

Endotracheal

103

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

104

IRDS

Infant respiratory distress syndrome

105

PND

Postnasal drip, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

106

SARS

Severe acute respiratory disease

107

SIDS

Sudden infant death syndrome

108

T & A

Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy

109

TLC

Total lung capacity

110

URI

Upper respiratory infection