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Flashcards in Citric Cycle Deck (44):
1

Hydration = ________

Synthesis

 

2

Dehydration = ________

Decomposition reaction

3

Hydrolysis = ________

Double replacement reaction

4

In a synthesis reaction known as _______, water is added to a double bond.

Hydration

5

In this decomposition reaction, an alcohol heated in the presence of H+ splits to form an alkene plus water.

Dehydration

6

Step 1 of the Citric Acid Cycle produces a 6 carbon ionic molecule named citrate. This step also involves the addition of water. What is the classification of this reaction? 

Synthesis-hydration

7

Step 1: Oxaloacetate and Acetyl-CoA and water produces? 

Citrate (synthesis hydration) 

8

How are the 2 compounds citrate and isocitrate related in step 2 of the cycle?

Isomers

9

What are the two reactions involved in the conversion of citrate to isocitrate?

Dehydration followed by Hydration

10

Oxidation: 

_____ of Oxygen

_____ of Electrons

_____ of Hydrogens

 

Gain of Oxygen

Loss of Electrons

Loss of Hydrogens

11

Reduction: 

_____ Of Oxygen

_____ of Electrons

_____ of Hydrogen

 

Loss of Oxygen

Gain of Electrons

Gain of Hydrogen

12

 

In step 6, the conversion of succinate to fumarate is?

 

Loss of Hydrogen atoms

(carbon atoms are oxidized)

13

What is the function of FAD in step 6 of the cycle?

Oxidizing agent

14

 

What are the two oxidizing agents on the citric cycle?

 

 

NAD+

FAD

15

In step 8, the conversion of malate to oxaloacetate. What is the fate of one of the atoms connected to oxygen in the malate ion?

loses hydrogen

16

What is the function of NAD+ in step 8 of the cycle?

Oxidizing agent

17

Identify the type of reaction in step 7.

Hydration

18

What is the loss of CO2 molecule?

Decarboxylation

19

Step 3 & 4 reactions where oxidation takes place, loss of a CO2 is referred to as _____________.

Decarboxylation 

20

Anything that ends -ase is what?

 

i.e. synthase

 

Catalyst

&

Enzyme

21

What is the function of fumarase in step 7?

Catalyst / Enzyme

22

Most enzymes are named such that they specify the reaction catalyzed. For example, dehydrogenase catalyzes?

 

The loss of hydrogen atoms 

OR

Oxidation reaction

23

The enzyme may also refer to the reactant modified during the reaction. For example, the enzyme fumarase catalyzes the conversion of what?

fumarate ion to malate ion in step 7

24

What pathway best describes the citric acid cycle? 

Circular 

25

What cell does the citric acid cycle take place in?

Mitochondria 

26

Mitochondria, known as the powerhouse, what is produced here? 

ATP

27

In citrate (step 1) the alcohol functional group is on the ______ carbon atom.

3rd

28

In isocitrate (step 2) the alcohol functional group is on the _______ carbon atom. 

2nd

29

The carbon atom carrying the OH group is attached to just one other carbon atom in a ______ alcohol,

to two other carbon atoms in a ________ alcohol,

and to three carbon atoms in a _______ alcohol. 

1 degree

2 degree

3 degree

30

Citrate can be classified as a ______ degree alcohol. 

3 degree

31

Isocitrate can be classified as a ______ degree alcohol.

2 degree

32

Which degree alcohol CANNOT be oxidized?

 

Why?

3 degree

 

The C connected to the OH is not directly connected to an H. 

33

During the oxidation reactions of alcohol, _______ hydrogen atoms are _______. 

Two hydrogen atoms are Removed.

 

 

1 hydrogen atom is removed from the -OH group and another is removed from the carbon atom that carries the -OH.

34

In step 2 of the cycle, Citrate ion is converted to Isocitrate via dehydration and hydration. Why is this conversion necessary? 

Citrate is a tertiary (3 degree) alcohol.

 3 degree alcohols CANNOT be oxidized.

Isocitrate is a secondary alcohol (2 degree).

2 degree alcohols CAN be oxidized.

 

Step 3 of the cycle requires oxidation of alcohols, so citrate is converted to isocitrate in order to perform oxidation. 

35

 

What are the three ATP equivalents that can be harvested to form energy-rich molecules?  

 

NADH

 

FADH2

 

GTP

36

What the harvest of one turn of the citric acid cycle?

 

 

3 NADH

1 FAHD2

1 GTP

37

The change in energy of the reaction of the citric acid cycle is -11 kcal/mol. 

 

Is this cycle spontaneous/nonspontaneous?

 

Is this cycle exo/endothermic? 

 

Spontaneous

 

Exothermic

(because of the -11kcal/mol)

38

A measure of the speed with which reaction products form?

Reaction rate

39

The energy required to cross the energy barrier between reactants and products?

Activation Energy

(Eact)

40

A substance that speeds up a reaction without itself being altered?

Catalyst 

41

What are 3 ways to alter the rate of a chemical reaction?

 

Increase temp.

 

Increase concentration

 

Add catalyst

42

What of the two graphs best describe overall citric acid cycle

The graph on the left because it shows a release of energy

(citric cycle = releases of energy)

 

Exothermic: The energy is released. 11kcal/mol is the release of energy.

43

How does a catalyst increase the speed of a reaction?

It lowers the activation energy of the reaction by changing the path the reaction takes. 

44

How do you distinguish between a reaction energy diagram with a catalyst and one without?

 

A large amount of "activation energy" = without catalyst

 

Small amount of "activation energy" = with catalyst