Hydration = ________
Dehydration = ________
Hydrolysis = ________
Double replacement reaction
In a synthesis reaction known as _______, water is added to a double bond.
In this decomposition reaction, an alcohol heated in the presence of H+ splits to form an alkene plus water.
Step 1 of the Citric Acid Cycle produces a 6 carbon ionic molecule named citrate. This step also involves the addition of water. What is the classification of this reaction?
Step 1: Oxaloacetate and Acetyl-CoA and water produces?
Citrate (synthesis hydration)
How are the 2 compounds citrate and isocitrate related in step 2 of the cycle?
What are the two reactions involved in the conversion of citrate to isocitrate?
Dehydration followed by Hydration
_____ of Oxygen
_____ of Electrons
_____ of Hydrogens
Gain of Oxygen
Loss of Electrons
Loss of Hydrogens
_____ Of Oxygen
_____ of Electrons
_____ of Hydrogen
Loss of Oxygen
Gain of Electrons
Gain of Hydrogen
In step 6, the conversion of succinate to fumarate is?
Loss of Hydrogen atoms
(carbon atoms are oxidized)
What is the function of FAD in step 6 of the cycle?
What are the two oxidizing agents on the citric cycle?
In step 8, the conversion of malate to oxaloacetate. What is the fate of one of the atoms connected to oxygen in the malate ion?
What is the function of NAD+ in step 8 of the cycle?
Identify the type of reaction in step 7.
What is the loss of CO2 molecule?
Step 3 & 4 reactions where oxidation takes place, loss of a CO2 is referred to as _____________.
Anything that ends -ase is what?
What is the function of fumarase in step 7?
Catalyst / Enzyme
Most enzymes are named such that they specify the reaction catalyzed. For example, dehydrogenase catalyzes?
The loss of hydrogen atoms
The enzyme may also refer to the reactant modified during the reaction. For example, the enzyme fumarase catalyzes the conversion of what?
fumarate ion to malate ion in step 7
What pathway best describes the citric acid cycle?
What cell does the citric acid cycle take place in?
Mitochondria, known as the powerhouse, what is produced here?
In citrate (step 1) the alcohol functional group is on the ______ carbon atom.
In isocitrate (step 2) the alcohol functional group is on the _______ carbon atom.
The carbon atom carrying the OH group is attached to just one other carbon atom in a ______ alcohol,
to two other carbon atoms in a ________ alcohol,
and to three carbon atoms in a _______ alcohol.
Citrate can be classified as a ______ degree alcohol.
Isocitrate can be classified as a ______ degree alcohol.
Which degree alcohol CANNOT be oxidized?
The C connected to the OH is not directly connected to an H.
During the oxidation reactions of alcohol, _______ hydrogen atoms are _______.
Two hydrogen atoms are Removed.
1 hydrogen atom is removed from the -OH group and another is removed from the carbon atom that carries the -OH.
In step 2 of the cycle, Citrate ion is converted to Isocitrate via dehydration and hydration. Why is this conversion necessary?
Citrate is a tertiary (3 degree) alcohol.
3 degree alcohols CANNOT be oxidized.
Isocitrate is a secondary alcohol (2 degree).
2 degree alcohols CAN be oxidized.
Step 3 of the cycle requires oxidation of alcohols, so citrate is converted to isocitrate in order to perform oxidation.
What are the three ATP equivalents that can be harvested to form energy-rich molecules?
What the harvest of one turn of the citric acid cycle?
The change in energy of the reaction of the citric acid cycle is -11 kcal/mol.
Is this cycle spontaneous/nonspontaneous?
Is this cycle exo/endothermic?
(because of the -11kcal/mol)
A measure of the speed with which reaction products form?
The energy required to cross the energy barrier between reactants and products?
A substance that speeds up a reaction without itself being altered?
What are 3 ways to alter the rate of a chemical reaction?
What of the two graphs best describe overall citric acid cycle
The graph on the left because it shows a release of energy
(citric cycle = releases of energy)
Exothermic: The energy is released. 11kcal/mol is the release of energy.
How does a catalyst increase the speed of a reaction?
It lowers the activation energy of the reaction by changing the path the reaction takes.
How do you distinguish between a reaction energy diagram with a catalyst and one without?
A large amount of "activation energy" = without catalyst
Small amount of "activation energy" = with catalyst