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Flashcards in Sandy Chapter 12: Enzymes Deck (27):
1

What are some enzymes produced initially as zymogens(inactive enzyme)?

Trypsin & Chymotrypsin

2

Trypsin and Chymotrypsin are initially formed as zymogens (inactive enzymes). Removal of hexapeptide converts:

trypsinogen (inactive) into ______ (active)

chymotrypsinogen (inactive) into _________ (active)

Trypsin

chymotrypsin

3

Allosteric enzymes are regulated by ions or molecules called _______ ________. 

allosteric effectors

4

Describe the effect of positive and negative effectors on allosteric enzymes.

 

What are two reasons for positive and negative effectors to speed up or slow down reaction rate? 

Pos effectors increase rate of reaction

Neg effectors decrease rate of reaction 

 

1. Cells Energy Deficient 

2. Cells Energy Rich

(energy = atp, gtp, etc.)

5

Main Control Point is which step in the CA cycle?

Step 3

6

Describe what happens at the Main control Point.

conversion of isomers

 

Neg effectors: ATP, NADH

Pos effectors: ADP, NAD+

7

Which steps are Control Points in the CA cycle?

 

fyi: ( main control vs control = diff)

Steps 1, 3, 10

 

(3 is main control point)

8

If cells are energy rich what will happen? 

 

If cells are energy deficient what will happen? 

ATP & Citrate increase & work as Neg effectors

 

ADP & AMP increase & work as Pos effectors

9

trypsin and chymotrypsin are enzymes located in the ____________. 

Zymogens are enzymes located in the __________.

(which organ?)

Small Intestines 

Pancrease

10

Why are Zymogens inactive enzymes?

They would digest organs

11

3 common Ketone Bodies found in urine while testing for diabetes. 

 

 

Aceto Acetate

Acetone

3-Hydroxybutyrate 

12

Digestion

Where does enzyme breakdown take place for the following: 

Starch (saccharides) = 

Proteins (peptides) =

Fats (glycerides) =

 

Starch (saccharides) = Mouth

Proteins (peptides) = Stomach

Fats (glycerides) = Small Intestines(Some in stomach)

 

13

Name the products formed during the digestion of polysaccharides

monosaccharides 

14

Name the products formed during the digestion of Triglycerides

monoacylglycerides 

fatty acids

glycerol 

15

Name the products formed during the digestion of proteins

amino acids

16

This involves the biosynthesis of larger compounds from smaller ones in processes that usually require energy. 

Anabolism

17

The sum of all reactions that take place in a living thing

 

Metabolism

 

 

18

Compounds are broken down into smaller ones and process that usually release energy. 

Catabolism

19

What are the three types of metabolic pathways?

Linear

Circular 

Spiral 

20

A continuous series of reactions in which the product of one reaction is the reactant in the next.

Linear

21

A series of reactions where the final product is an initial reactant.

circular

22

A series of repeated reactions is used to break down or build up a molecule. 

Spiral

23

A spontaneous reaction provides the energy needed by a nonspon one

Coupled reaction

24

What is the initial reactant and final product in glycolysis

1 glucose

2 pyruvate

25

How is glycolysis controlled?

spontaneous

catabolic 

26

Explain how glyconeogenesis differs from glycolysis

glyconeogenesis: glucose from noncarb sources

 

occurs under starvation

27

Be able to differentiate between Absolute specificity, Relative specificity, Stereospecificity

A few enzymes exhibit _______ specificity; that is, they will catalyze only one particular reaction.

________ specificity; a molecule that interacts with its numerous substrates.

 

______-specificity is the property of a reaction mechanism that leads to different stereoisomeric reaction products

Absolute specificity

 

Relative specificity

 

Stereospecificity