What are some enzymes produced initially as zymogens(inactive enzyme)?
Trypsin & Chymotrypsin
Trypsin and Chymotrypsin are initially formed as zymogens (inactive enzymes). Removal of hexapeptide converts:
trypsinogen (inactive) into ______ (active)
chymotrypsinogen (inactive) into _________ (active)
Allosteric enzymes are regulated by ions or molecules called _______ ________.
Describe the effect of positive and negative effectors on allosteric enzymes.
What are two reasons for positive and negative effectors to speed up or slow down reaction rate?
Pos effectors increase rate of reaction
Neg effectors decrease rate of reaction
1. Cells Energy Deficient
2. Cells Energy Rich
(energy = atp, gtp, etc.)
Main Control Point is which step in the CA cycle?
Describe what happens at the Main control Point.
conversion of isomers
Neg effectors: ATP, NADH
Pos effectors: ADP, NAD+
Which steps are Control Points in the CA cycle?
fyi: ( main control vs control = diff)
Steps 1, 3, 10
(3 is main control point)
If cells are energy rich what will happen?
If cells are energy deficient what will happen?
ATP & Citrate increase & work as Neg effectors
ADP & AMP increase & work as Pos effectors
trypsin and chymotrypsin are enzymes located in the ____________.
Zymogens are enzymes located in the __________.
Why are Zymogens inactive enzymes?
They would digest organs
3 common Ketone Bodies found in urine while testing for diabetes.
Where does enzyme breakdown take place for the following:
Starch (saccharides) =
Proteins (peptides) =
Fats (glycerides) =
Starch (saccharides) = Mouth
Proteins (peptides) = Stomach
Fats (glycerides) = Small Intestines(Some in stomach)
Name the products formed during the digestion of polysaccharides
Name the products formed during the digestion of Triglycerides
Name the products formed during the digestion of proteins
This involves the biosynthesis of larger compounds from smaller ones in processes that usually require energy.
The sum of all reactions that take place in a living thing
Compounds are broken down into smaller ones and process that usually release energy.
What are the three types of metabolic pathways?
A continuous series of reactions in which the product of one reaction is the reactant in the next.
A series of reactions where the final product is an initial reactant.
A series of repeated reactions is used to break down or build up a molecule.
A spontaneous reaction provides the energy needed by a nonspon one
What is the initial reactant and final product in glycolysis
How is glycolysis controlled?
Explain how glyconeogenesis differs from glycolysis
glyconeogenesis: glucose from noncarb sources
occurs under starvation
Be able to differentiate between Absolute specificity, Relative specificity, Stereospecificity
A few enzymes exhibit _______ specificity; that is, they will catalyze only one particular reaction.
________ specificity; a molecule that interacts with its numerous substrates.
______-specificity is the property of a reaction mechanism that leads to different stereoisomeric reaction products