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Flashcards in Scotts Final Final Review Tuesday Deck (30):
1

Formula

Temperature conversions

(1.8 X °C) + 32 = °F 

 

°C = °F - 32 / 1.8

 

K = °C + 273

2

Kilo = 

deci = 

centi =

milli = 

micro =

nano =

Kilo = 103

deci = 10-1

centi = 10-2

milli = 10-3

micro = 10-6

nano = 10-9

3

Formula for Density

 

Formula for Specific Gravity

Density = Mass / Volume

mass in g/ volume in ml

 

Specific Gravity = Density of substance / Density of water(1.00mL)

g/ml / g/ml

4

Periodic Table

What is group 1A, 2A, 7A, & 8A classified as

1A = Alkali

2A = Alkaline Earth Metals

7A = Halogens

8A = Inert/Noble Gases 

5

What is a molecular compound?

 

What is a ionic compound?

2 non metals

 

(+)(-)

6

Electronegativity Chart

 

Polar = ____ to _____

Polar = 0.5 to 1.9

7

w/v % =

ppm = 

mEq =

w/v % = g/ml X 100

ppb =  '' '' X 106

1mEq K+ = 1 mmol 

(charge indicates mmol)

 

8

Isotonic = 

Hypotonic = 

Hypertonic =

Isotonic = 0.95% NaCl & 5.5% Glucose

Hypotonic = less than 0.95% NaCl & 5.5% Glucose

Hypertonic = more than 0.95% NaCl & 5.5% Glucose

9

 

Diffusion VS. Osmosis

 

 

Diffusion = High to Low

 

Osmosis = Low to High (w/ semi-permeable membrane)

10

Gay Lue Law

Pressure Temperature Law

 

Directly related

11

Charles Law

Volume and Temperature Law

 

Directly related

12

Boyles Law

Pressure and Volume Law

 

Inversely related 

13

Daltons Law of PP

Total Pressure of Gase = Sum of partial pressures

14

What is the solubility of a Gas: 

 

For all gaseous solutes, an increase in temp leads to a decrease in solubility. 

15

Define: Electrolytes

Compounds that dissolve in water to form ions

16

Bronsted-Lowry Acids & Bases:

Acids _______ H+

Bases _______ H+

 

Acids are proton _______.

Bases are proton _______.

 

 

 

Acids release H+

Bases accept H+

 

Acids are proton donors.

Bases are proton acceptors.

17

Bronsted-Lowry Acids & Bases:

 

Define: Amphoteric

 

 

Amphoteric: Compounds that can act as acids or bases. 

i.e: H2O

18

Ka values for selected acids:

 

Which of the following is stronger?

Ka = 2.5 x 1010 

OR

Ka = 6.6 x 10-4

(Ka refers to acids, different than Keq)

 

 

 

Ka = 2.5 x 1010 is the stronger acid. 

 

 

fyi: (larger values are stronger acids)

19

1. Monosaccharides:

 

2. Oligosaccharides:

 

3. Polysaccharides:

1. Monosaccharides: Glucose/polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones. 

 

2. Oligosaccharides: Lactose/contains 2-10 monosaccharide residues. 

 

3. Polysaccharides: Starch/contain more than 10 monosaccharide residues. 

20

Net Harvest from one go around of CA cycle is what?

3 NADH

1 FADH2

1 ATP

21

(fatty acid catabolism)

NADH to ATP conversion

FADHto ATP conversion

NADH X 2.5

FADH2 X 1.5

22

ATP's produced from total oxidation (fatty acid catabolism)

 

NADH =

FADH2 =

acetyl-CoA =

ATP =

NADH = Number of breaks (lines @ 2 cabons)

FADH2 = NADH

acetyl-CoA = NADH + 1

ATP = -2 (-2 to get cycle started)

23

Which term best describes electron transport chain? (fatty acid catabolism)

Active Transport

24

Facilitated diffusion or Active Transport? (fatty acid catabolism)

 

Hmoves from the inter-membrane space, through ATP synthase, and into matrix. 

 

H is moved to the mitochondrial inter-membrane space from the mitochondrial matrix.

Facilitated diffusion

 

Active Transport

25

How can low carb high fat and protein diets result in the production of ketone bodies?

When glucose metabolism is impaired due to starvation or diabetes.

 

As glucose drops, ketone bodies rise to produce ATP​

26

5'--> AGG|AAA|TCA|GAC|GAG|GGA

List the base sequence in a new DNA strand produced by DNA polymerase. What process is this called? 

3'--> TCC|TTT|AGT|CTG|CTC|CCA

 

Replication

27

List the base sequence in the mRNA strand formed from the new DNA strand.

DNA strand: 5'--> AGG|AAA|TCA|GAC|GAG|GGA

---------------------------------------------------------------

codonsReplication: 3'--> TCC|TTT|AGT|CTG|CTC|CCA

--------------------------------------------------------------

anticodonsTranscription: 5'-->                                                    

 

 5'--> AGG|AAA|UCA|GAC|GAG|GGU

28

 Define: Genetic Code

 

Codon =  3 bases

 

 

  • Only one codon read at a time
  • Each codon specifies a particular amino acid.
  • 64 different variations fyi (diff bases can still = same amino acid and not cause issue)

29

Drawing polypeptide fragments as they would appear at physiological pH. 

 AGG|AAA|UCA|GAC|GAG|GGU mRNA

=

 Arg-Lys-Ser-Asp-Glu-Gly Polypeptide Fragment

=

Explain how to draw polypeptide fragment @ pH7.

  • Locate Arg-Lys-Ser-Asp-Glu-Gly on amino acids chart
  • Draw each amino acid
  • Drop (-) on carboxylate ion O=C-O-
  • N+H3 is now NH
  • O=C-O-N-H

30

List the chemical bonds or forces responsible for maintaining the following. 

  1. Primary structure of the protein
  2. Secondary structure of the protein
  3. Tertiary structure of the protein
  4. Quaternary structure or the protein

  1. Peptide bond
  2. H-Bonding
  3. Salt Bridge, Londons, H-Bonding, Disulfite Bridges
  4. same as tertiery