(1.8 X °C) + 32 = °F
°C = °F - 32 / 1.8
K = °C + 273
Kilo = 103
deci = 10-1
centi = 10-2
milli = 10-3
micro = 10-6
nano = 10-9
Formula for Density
Formula for Specific Gravity
Density = Mass / Volume
mass in g/ volume in ml
Specific Gravity = Density of substance / Density of water(1.00mL)
g/ml / g/ml
What is group 1A, 2A, 7A, & 8A classified as
1A = Alkali
2A = Alkaline Earth Metals
7A = Halogens
8A = Inert/Noble Gases
What is a molecular compound?
What is a ionic compound?
2 non metals
Polar = ____ to _____
Polar = 0.5 to 1.9
w/v % =
w/v % = g/ml X 100
ppb = '' '' X 106
1mEq K+ = 1 mmol
(charge indicates mmol)
Isotonic = 0.95% NaCl & 5.5% Glucose
Hypotonic = less than 0.95% NaCl & 5.5% Glucose
Hypertonic = more than 0.95% NaCl & 5.5% Glucose
Diffusion VS. Osmosis
Diffusion = High to Low
Osmosis = Low to High (w/ semi-permeable membrane)
Gay Lue Law
Pressure Temperature Law
Volume and Temperature Law
Pressure and Volume Law
Daltons Law of PP
Total Pressure of Gase = Sum of partial pressures
What is the solubility of a Gas:
For all gaseous solutes, an increase in temp leads to a decrease in solubility.
Compounds that dissolve in water to form ions
Bronsted-Lowry Acids & Bases:
Acids _______ H+
Bases _______ H+
Acids are proton _______.
Bases are proton _______.
Acids release H+
Bases accept H+
Acids are proton donors.
Bases are proton acceptors.
Bronsted-Lowry Acids & Bases:
Amphoteric: Compounds that can act as acids or bases.
Ka values for selected acids:
Which of the following is stronger?
Ka = 2.5 x 1010
Ka = 6.6 x 10-4
(Ka refers to acids, different than Keq)
Ka = 2.5 x 1010 is the stronger acid.
fyi: (larger values are stronger acids)
1. Monosaccharides: Glucose/polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones.
2. Oligosaccharides: Lactose/contains 2-10 monosaccharide residues.
3. Polysaccharides: Starch/contain more than 10 monosaccharide residues.
Net Harvest from one go around of CA cycle is what?
(fatty acid catabolism)
NADH to ATP conversion
FADH2 to ATP conversion
NADH X 2.5
FADH2 X 1.5
ATP's produced from total oxidation (fatty acid catabolism)
NADH = Number of breaks (lines @ 2 cabons)
FADH2 = NADH
acetyl-CoA = NADH + 1
ATP = -2 (-2 to get cycle started)
Which term best describes electron transport chain? (fatty acid catabolism)
Facilitated diffusion or Active Transport? (fatty acid catabolism)
H+ moves from the inter-membrane space, through ATP synthase, and into matrix.
H+ is moved to the mitochondrial inter-membrane space from the mitochondrial matrix.
How can low carb high fat and protein diets result in the production of ketone bodies?
When glucose metabolism is impaired due to starvation or diabetes.
As glucose drops, ketone bodies rise to produce ATP
List the base sequence in a new DNA strand produced by DNA polymerase. What process is this called?
List the base sequence in the mRNA strand formed from the new DNA strand.
DNA strand: 5'--> AGG|AAA|TCA|GAC|GAG|GGA
codonsReplication: 3'--> TCC|TTT|AGT|CTG|CTC|CCA
Define: Genetic Code
Codon = 3 bases
- Only one codon read at a time.
- Each codon specifies a particular amino acid.
- 64 different variations fyi (diff bases can still = same amino acid and not cause issue)
Drawing polypeptide fragments as they would appear at physiological pH.
Arg-Lys-Ser-Asp-Glu-Gly Polypeptide Fragment
Explain how to draw polypeptide fragment @ pH7.
- Locate Arg-Lys-Ser-Asp-Glu-Gly on amino acids chart
- Draw each amino acid
- Drop (-) on carboxylate ion O=C-O-
- N+H3 is now NH
List the chemical bonds or forces responsible for maintaining the following.
- Primary structure of the protein
- Secondary structure of the protein
- Tertiary structure of the protein
- Quaternary structure or the protein