CLINICAL AND ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CLINICAL AND ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY Deck (237):
1

CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY

- study of theory, assessment, and treatment of mental and emotional disorders

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Psychoanalytical theory

- Sigmund Freud
- most extensive complex theory of human nature
- conflict central to human nature, between drives of conscious and unconscious
- individuals motivated by drive reduction

3

Greatest conflict in psychoanalytical theroy

- 1st was between libido (sex) and ego
- later revised that conflict is between eros (life instinct) and thanatos (death instict)

4

Layout of mind in psychoanalytical theroy

- first viewed layout of mind as a topographic model of mental life which conscious elements were openly acknolwedged forced and unconscious elements e.g. drives and wishes and layers below consciousness
-later model is was structural = mental life has particular organization rather than layers

5

3 components of structural organization:

1) ego
2) id
3) superego

6

Ego

- mediates between envionrment and pressures of id and superego

7

Id

- contains unconscious biological drives
- life at birth consists of id (biological drives e.g. aggression) then develops to include unconscious wishes

8

Superego

- imposed learned or socialized drives
- not born with - influenced by moral and parental training

9

How well a person handles their ego =

- determines their mental health
- constant push pull between competing forces of id, superego, and environment

10

Abnormal theory (psychoanalytical)

- result of repressed drives and conflicts that manifest in dysfunctional ways
- pathological behaviour, dreams, and unconscious behavior are symptoms of underlying unresolved conflicts

11

Psychic determinisms

- pathological behavior from unresolved conflict is manifested when ego does not find acceptable ways to express conflict

12

Therapy (psychoanalytical)

- Psychoanalysis or analysis
- seen 4-5x week vs. 1x or 2x and for many years
- intitially used hyponosis and later switched to free association

13

Charcot and Janet

- hypnosis

14

Breuer

- free association
- process in which patients reeports thoughts

15

Catharsis or abreaction

- discharge of repressed emotion through free association

16

Transference

- central idea to psychoanalysis
- patients react to therapist like they reacted to their parents
- serve as metaphor for patient's repressed emotions about parents

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Countertransference

- how therapist feels about their patient
- unconscious feelings or wishes

18

Object relations theory

- therapist uses patients transference to help them resolve problems that were result of previous relationships by correcting emotional experience in their therapist-patient realtionship

19

Goal of therapy (psychoanalyitical)

- lessen unconscious pressures by making much of this material conscious as possible
- allow ego to better mediate forces

20

Criticism (psychoanaylitical)

- develops theories from single cases studies of woman
- not scientific method

21

Aggression

- central force in humans that must find socially acceptable outlet

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Defense mechanism

- way in which ego protects itself from threatening unconscious material/environmental forces

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Repression/denail

- not allowing threatening material into awareness

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Rationalization

- justifying/rationalizing behavior or feelings that cause guilt

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Projection

- accusing others of having one's own unacceptable feelings

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Displacement

- shifting unacceptable feelings or action to less threatening recipient

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Reaction formation

- embracing feelings or behaviours opposite to the true threatening feeling that one has

28

Compensation

- excelling in one area to make up for shortcomings in another

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Sublimination

- channeling threatening drives into acceptable outlets

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Identification

- imitating a central figure in one's life

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Undoing

- performing ritualistic activity in order to relieve anxiety about unconscious drives

32

Dreams

- safe outlets for unconcious meterial and wish fulfillment

33

Manifest content

- actualy content of reams provides info for latent content

34

Latent content

- unconscious forces the dreams are trying to express

35

Pleasure principle

- AKA primary process
- human motivation to skeek pleasure, avoid pain
- salient in early life
- where id operates

36

Reality principle

- AKA secondary process
- guided by ego and responds to demands of the environment by delaying gratification

37

Screen memory

- serve as representations of important childhood experiences

38

Individual theory/Alderian theory

- Alfred Adler
- people are viewed as creative, social and whole
- people realize themselves via "becoming"
- motivated by social needs and feelings of inferiority when current self doesn't match self-ideal

39

Will to power

- health individual has will to power to quest for superiort in spite of inferiority
- pursue quest that are outside himself and beneficial to society

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Abnormal theory (Alderian)

- unhealthy individuals are too much affected by inferior feelings to pursue the will to power
- make excuses and if they do pursue goals are self-serving and egotistical

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Therapy (Alderian)

- psychodynamic approach where unconscious feelings play a role
- examination of person's lifestyle and choices
- patient examines motivation perception, goals and resources

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Goal of therapy (Alderian)

- aims to reduce feelings of inferiortiy
- foster social interest and social contribution

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Criticism (Alderian)

- best use with normal people in search of growth

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What did Alder create?

- a peronality typology based on personal activity and social interest

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Ruling-dominant type (choleric)

- high actibity
- low social contribution
- dominant

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Getting-learning type (phlegmatic)

- low activity
- high social contribution
- dependent

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Avoiding type (melancholic)

- low activity
- low social contribution
- withdrawn

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Socially useful type (sanguine)

- high activity
- high social contribution
- healthy

49

Analytical Theory

- Gustav Jung
- freud placed too much emphasis on libido
- psyche was directed towards life and awarness (rather than sex)

50

Unconscious is divded into 2 types (jung)

- personal unconscious: material from own experiences that can become conscious
- collective unconcscious: dynamics of psyche inherited from ancestors
- commmon to all people and contain archetypes

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Archetype (jung)

- best knwon concept
- universially meaningful concepts passed down through collective unconscious since beginning of man
- allow us to oranized expericnce across cultures

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Persona (jung)

- person's outer mask

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Shadow (jung)

- person's dark side
- often projected onto other

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Anima (jung)

- female elements that man possess

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Animus (jung)

- male elemtns that females possess

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Self

- full individual potential, symbolized in cultures by figures
e.g. mandala

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Abnomal theory (jung)

- something is wrong in makeup of the psyche
- provides clues about how one could become more aware

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Therpy( jung)

- psychodynamic because unconscious elements are addressed
- material exposed via analsis of individual's dreams, personal symbols etc.

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Goal of therapy (jung)

- use unconscious messages in order to become more aware and closer to full potential

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Criticisms (jung)

- too mystical/spiritual

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Client centered therapy

- rogers
- AKA person centered/Rogerian therapy centered around humanistici and optimistic outlook on human nature
- individuals have atualizing tendency that can direct them out of conflict and toward full potential
- best via atmosphere that fosters growth

62

Abormal theroy (roger)

- people who lack congruency between real selves and their conscious self concept
- feelings are inconsistent with acknowledged concept of self

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therapy (roger)

- direct by client
- therapist is nondirective and only provide atmopshere for client's self-exploration

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Empathy(roger)

- by therapist shoudl appreacite rather than just observe the client's world

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Unconditional positive regard (roger)

- facilitates a trusting and safe environment
- therapist maintains positive feelings no matter what the therapist chooses

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Genuinessess/congreuence (roger)

- feelings and experiences of therapist should match
- shoud not maintain a professional reserve but speak genuinely with client

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Goal of therapy (roger)

- provide trusting atmosphere where client can egnahe in self-directed growth
- evidence = congruent self-concept, positive self-regard, internal locus of evluation and willingess to experience

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Criticism (roger)

- used no diagnositc tools because believed that client-centered therapy applied to any psychological problem

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Behaviour Theory

- Skinner, Pavlov, Wolpe
- applicatio of classical and operatn conditions to human abnormal behviaour
- based on learning
- change maladaptie beaviour through new learning

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Radicsl behaviourism

- associatd with skinner's operant ideas
- behaviour only related to consequences

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Neobehaviourism

- used pavlov's classical couterconditioning principles to create new responses to stimuli

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Abnormal theroy (behaavioursm)

- result of learning

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Therapy (beahvuoursm)

- short term and direted
- thoughts, unconscious etc. are not addressed
- uses techniques of counterconditioning to foster the learning of new responses in client

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Sytematic desensitization (behavioursim)

- developed by Wolpe
- classical conditioning to relieve anxiety
- exposed to increainly anxiety provoking stimuli until anxiety associated with those stimui is decreased

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Flooding or impolsive therapy (behviourism)

- applies classical conditioning in order to relieve anxiety
- repeatdly exposed to any anxiety producing sitmuli so that overeposure leads to lessen anxiety

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Aversion therapy (beahviourism)

- operant pinciple of negative reinforcement to reduce anxiety
- anxiety reaction is created where there was preiously none
- treat addiction and fetishes

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Shaping (behviourism)

- operant conditiongin to change behaviour
- reinforced for beahviours that come closer to desired action

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Modeling (behviourism)

- employs social learning that exposes client to more adaptive behaviours

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Assertiveness training (beahvuourism)

- provides tools and exprience thorough which client is more assertive

80

Role playing (beahvioursm)

- allow client to practive new beaivours and repsonses

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Goal of therapy (beahvoiurism)

- change beaviour in desired or adpative direction
- extremly successful in treatiung phobias, fetishes, OCD, seuxal probems, and childhood disorders

82

Crtiticism (beahviourism)

- accused of treating symptoms rather than underlying probem

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Cognitive thoery

-beck
- consious thought patterns are starring role in peoples lives
- way person interprets experince, rather than the epeirnce itself

84

Abnoral theroy (beck)

- maladaptive cognitiongs lead to abnormal beahviours

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Arbitrary inference (beck)

- drawing conlsucions without solid evidnece

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Overgeneralization (beck)

- Mistaking isolated incident for the norm

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Magnifying/minimizing (beck)

- making too much or little of something

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Peronalizing (beck)

- inappropriately taking responsbility

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Dichotomous thining (beck)

back and white thinking

90

Cognitive triad

- negative views about self, world and future cuase depression

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Beck depression inventory (BDI)

- measures cognitive traid to guage severity of depression

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Therapy (beck)

- directed therapy to expose maladaptive thought and reasoning patterns
- short term and focus on tangible evidence of client's logica (e.g. what they say or do)

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Goal of therapy (beck)

- to correct maladaptive cognitions

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Criticims (beck)

- address how person thinks rather why pattersn were initally developed
- removing symptoms may not cure the problem

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Rationale-emotive theroy

- albert ellis
- elements of cognitive, behvaioural, emotion theory
- interwined thoughts and feelings produce behaviour

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Abnormal theory (raional emotive)

- tensions is created when activating event occurs (A) and client appies certain beliefs about event (B) and leads to consequence of emotional disruption (C)

97

Therapy (rational emotive)

- therapy is directive
- lead client to dispute (D) the previously applied irrational beliefs

98

Goal of thearpy (rational emotive)

- effective rational beliefs(E) is to replace previous self-defeating one
- thought, feelings, behaviours can coexist

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Crticism (rational emotive)

- RET is too sterile and mechanistic like cognitive abdbehavoural

100

Gestalt theory (Perls, werthiemer, koffa)

- stand apart from beliefs, biases and attitudes derived from the past
- fully experience and percieve the present to become whole and integrated person

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Abnormal theory (gestalt)

- derived from disturbances of awareness
- client may not have insight and not fully experince his present situation (now acnowledging situation)

102

Therapy (gestalt)

- engages in dialogue with client rather than leading the client toward any goal
- learns from shared dialoge and focus on present rather than past and future

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Goal of therapy (gestalt)

- exploration of awarness and full experieinc of the present
- success is when client is connected to present

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Crticism (gestalt)

- not suited for low-functioning and disturbed clients

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Existential theory (Frankl)

- age-old philosophical ideas about meaning
- greatest struggle are those of being vs. nonbeing and meaingfulness vs. meaninlessness
- constant stive to rise above simply existent (will to meaning)

106

Rollo May

- major contributor to existential therapy

107

Abnormal therapy (existential)

- response to perceied meaningless in life is neuroris or neurotic activity

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Therapy (existential)

- talking therapy where deep questioning relates to client's perception an meaning of existence are discussed

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Goal of therapy (existential)

- increase sense of being and meaingfulness
- will alleviate neurotic anxiety

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Criticism (existential)

- called too abstract for distrubed individuals

111

Psychopharmacology

- use of medication to treat mental illness
- do not cure illness but effective at alleviating syptoms
- sometimes the only treatment recieved

112

Abnormal theroy (psychopharmacology)

- emotional disturbacnes are partly caused by biological factors that can be successfully treated with medication

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Therapy (psychopharmacology)

- aim to affect NT

114

Most common NT (monoamines)

- dopamin, serotoning, norepinephrine

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Antipsychotics

- first drugs used for psychopathology
- treat positive symptoms of schizophrenia by blocking dopamin receptors and inhibit prouction

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Antimanics

- manage bipolar
- inhibit monoamines such as norepinephren and serotinine
- theory that excessive monoamines = mania

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Antidepressants

- opposite action of antimanics
- theory of abnormally low levels of monoamines cause depression
- drugs act to increase monoamines production

118

Tricylic antidepressant (TCA)

- have tricyclic chemical structu

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Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI)

- type od antidepressent increase monoamines

120

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

- act only on serotonin
- more frequently prescribed antidepressant because of few side effects

121

Anxiolyntics

- reduce anxiety or to induce sleep by increasing effectiveness of GABA (inhibitory NT)
- high potential for habituation and addiction

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Antabuse

- changes metasbolism of alchol that result in naseua and vomiting when combined with alcohol
- countercondition of alchoholics

123

Goal of therapy (psychopharamcology)

- relief from sympomts of psychopathology

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Criticism (psychpharamcology)

- take away symptoms do not provide interpersonal support

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Han Eysenck

- critized effectivness of psychotherapy
- no mroe successful that no treatment at all
- others have contradicted this point

126

Anna Freud

- applied Fruedian ideas to child and development

127

Malanie Klien

- pioneered objects relation theory and psychoanalysis with childrne

128

Neofruedian - Horney

- empahsized culture and society over instinct
- neuroticism is expressed as movement toward, against, an away from people

129

Sullivan - neofrudian

- empahsized social and interpersonal relationships

130

Psychodynamic theory

- refers to theroies that emphaize role of unconscious

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Cogitive behavioural therapy (CBT)

- employs principles from cognitive abd behavioural therapy

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Humanistic theory

- refers to theories that emphasize positive, evolving free will in people

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Third Force

- humaistic therapy
- in psychotherapy the reaction to psychoanalysis and beahviourlism

134

Maslow

- leader in humanistic movement
- pyramid of heirarchy of needs
- huans starts from bottom and work i their way up to hierarcy towards self-actualization aby satisfying the needs at previous levels

135

Play therapy

- child clients
- convey emotions, situations, and distrubances

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Electrovconvulsive shock therapy (ECT)

- electric current to brain and induces convulsions
- effect intervention for severly dperessed

137

Family therapy

- treats family togther and views whoel family as the client

138

Stress-incoluation training

- Meichenbaum
- prepares people for foreseeable stressors

139

Niel Miller

- abnormal behaviour can be learned

140

Evidence based treatment

- refers to treatment for MHC that been shown to produce resuts in empirical research stuidies
- some argue only treatment shown to work in research is ethical
- others argue that controlled experiements are noting like realy treatment enviornment

141

Why are antidepressants frquently employed for depression?

- relatively fast relief of symtpoms
- so that person can attend therapy
- psychotherapy can be unsuccessful
- usually require 6 weeks to start working

142

Applied psychology

- uses principles or research findinds to solve problems

143

DSM 4

-16 categoires of mHC

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Abnormal psychology

- beahviour that is deemed not normal
- 16 categories

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Mental retardation (childhood)

- IQ of 70 or below
- mild = 55-70
- moderate = 40-55
- sever = 25-40
- profound = under 25

146

Learning disorders (childhood)

- problems with social, communication and interests

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Attention deficits ad disruptive behaviour (childhood) (2)

- ADHD is indicative of atention, beahviour problem and ipulsivity
- ODD patterns of behaviour that violate rules, norms or rights of others

148

Tic (childhood)

- tourrettes snydrome e.g.
- motor and vocal tics

149

Elimintation disorders (childhood)

- nocturnal enuresis e.g. bed wetting
- treated with behaviour modiication

150

Delirium (cogitive)

- disturbed consioucness and cogntition

151

Dementia (cogntive)

- result from medical condition e.g. alxhiemers, huntingtons, picks's (personality changes)

152

Mental disorders via general medical condition

- direct physiological result of medical problem e.g. depression from hypothyriodism

153

Substance related disorder

- from use of any toxin

154

Dependence (substance)

- continued use depsite probem
- need for more
- desire but inability to stop
- withdrawal
- lessen outisde interest
- time spent locating, using, recovering

155

Abuse (substance)

- recurrent use despite danger

156

Psychotic disorder

- hallucinations or delusions (erronious beliefs) are present

157

Schizophrenia

- dementia preacox (renamed by bleuler)
- splitmind from reality
- excessive dopamine

158

Positive symptoms (schizo)

- abrnoamally present
- delusions, perceptiual hallucinations, nonsensical speech, neologism (made up speech)

159

Negative symptos (schizo)

- abnormall absent
- flat effect
- restrictions in thoughts, speech, behaviour

160

Onsset of sczhiophrenai

- between adolescent and mid-30

161

Process schziophrenia

- develops graudally
- lowe rrate of recovery

162

Reactive schizphreni

- develops suddely to event
- higher rate of recovery
- more likely if person has good social and interpersonal skills

163

Diathesis stress theory

- schizophrenia results from physiological predisposition and external stresor

164

Paranoid

- preoccuptions with hallucionations

165

Disorganized

- hebphrenic schizophrenia
- disorganized pseehc, beahviour, flat effect

166

Catatonic

- psychomotor disturbances
- catelepsy (waxy figure)
- prominent posturing (grimacing)
- echolalia
- echopraxia (imitating gestures)

167

Undifferentiaed

- not fitting in schizo type

168

Residual

- few positive symptoms

169

Schizoaffetive

- accompanying depressive episode

170

Delusional disorder

- various types
- eromatic (in love with individual)
- grandiose
- jealousy
- persecutory
- somatic (believe body is ugly)

171

Shared psychotic disorder

- folie a deux
- 2 ppl with shared delusions

172

MDD

- depressive episode
- weight changes, sleep changes, anhedonia, suicid
- every day for 2 weeks
- twice as common in females

173

Dysthmic disorder (mood)

- MDD symptoms with no epidosde
- more days than none for 2 years

174

Bipolar (mood)

- manic dperession
- depressive and manic symptos that alternative
- equal in males and females

175

Panic attack

- under 10 mins
- intense fear of dying

176

Treatment for anxiety

- GAD with anxiolytics, specific anxiety with exposure therapy

177

Panic disorder

- recurrent panic attacks that worry about another attack
- often with mitral vlave heart problem

178

Agoraphobia

- fear of stiaution where panic symptoms might arise
- fear and avoidance

179

Phobia

- recognized, nresonalb efear towards stimuli
- specific phobia and social phobia

180

OCD

- obsession and compulsions ( mental acts/repititons) that an time consusmming and siruptive

181

PTSD

- exposure to rama that reuslt in decrease ability to function and recurrent thought sna anxiety about trauma

182

Somatoform disorder

- bodily and physicla smyptoms that reduced functioning

183

COnversion disorder (somatoform)

- voluntary movement and paralysis

184

Hypochondrais (somatoform)

- irrational concern about having a sesrious disorder

185

Factitious disorder

- creating physical complains thorugh fabrication and self-inflinction to assume sick role

186

Dissociateive disorder

- disruption in memory or identity (psychogenic disorder)

187

Amnesia (dissociative)

- reterograde (can't remember even before trauma)
- anterograde

188

Fugue (dissociative)

- fleeing to new location
- forgetting identity
- establishing new idnetity

189

Identifity disorder (disoociative)

- AKA multiple personality disorder
- 2+ identites

190

Sexual and gender idenity disorder

- fetishes
- arousal prblems
- gender disocomfort

191

Eating disorders

- AN (refusing to eat)
- BC (binge and compensate)

192

Dyssomnais

- sleep abnormalities

193

Parasomnias

- abnormal behaviours during sleep

194

Insomnia

- diffulty falling or staying alssep

195

Hypersomina

- ecessive sleep

196

Nacolespy

- fallsing asleep everywhre

197

Nightmare

- disurption of sleep via. nighmares

198

Sleep terrors

- dirusption of sleep via. screaming

199

Impulse control disorder (not elsewhere classified)

- giving into ipulse lessions tensions and brings relief
- diruptive to overall function

200

Kleptomnia

- steal

201

Pyromani

- set fires

202

Pathological gambling

- gamble

203

Trichotillomani

- pull out hair

204

Adjustment disorder

- presence of real stressor decreases functioning

205

Peronality disordrs

- rigid, pervaisve, vulturally abnormal prsonality structures

206

Paranoid (PD)

- distructs

207

Schizoid

- detachment -
- small rang eof emotion

208

Schizotype

- eceentricity, disotorted reality

209

Antisocial

- disregard for tothers
- absenc eof guild

210

Borderlin

- insaility in realtionships
- impuslive

211

Histronic

- attention seeking and emotional

212

Narcissitic

- need for admiration and superiority

213

Avoidnt

- insecury, social inhibitons, hypersensitive
- perception in indqadeuqnecy

214

Depdnent

- clingy

215

Obeseevvie copuslie

- perfectionism

216

Dopamin

- too much = schozphrenia
- use amphtamines to incree activity - produces paranoid symptoms
- Neuroleptic blocks dopmaine
- parksons = deficieny in dopamin (neuroleptics can cause this)

217

Tardive dyskinesia

- long term use of neuroleptics or psychotropics
- involuntary movements of tongue, jaw etc.

218

Down syndrome

- trisoy of chromosom 21

219

Cretinism

- idodine deficieny

220

Korskoff's syndome

- vit B deficieny
- loss of memory or orientation
- confabulations = make up events
- from alchoholism

221

Wernicke's syndrome

- thanimine deficieny
- memory problems and eye dysfucntions

222

Phynlyketonuria (PKU)

- excessive amino acids
- metabolic error

223

Tay-Sach disease

- resemeble schizphrenia and demantia
- deficieny of hexoamindase A

224

Klinefelter's syndrom

- XYY male

225

Depression rates

- higher in developed countries
- woman 2x

226

Ractive depression

- from particular events
- similar to learned helplessneess

227

Szasz

- sczhiophrenic world is misunderstood or artistic and shouldn't be treated

228

Depressive realism

- idea that depressed have more realistic view of world

229

Fromm and Reichman

- schiophrenogenic moter
- cause children to be schozphrenic

230

Rosenhan

- diagnostic lables of perception
- those with fake illnesses acted normal but stilll fit diaonsis

231

Life event stress

- result from large, sudden changes or problems

232

Healthy pschology

- more likely to get sick when stressed
- social support = better health outcomes

233

Multiaxial assessement

- clients are assessed acros 5 axis for complete picture of their functioning
1) clinical disorders
2) personality disorder
3) general medical
4) psychosocial
5) global

234

APA

- founded in 1892 by stanley hall
- includes american psychologist, psychological bulletin, and psychological abstracts
- also includes PSYC INFO

235

Primary prevention

- attentps to prevent psychosocial problem thorugh direct contact with at-risk people
- proactive intervention that take place before prolems arise

236

Culturally competent interventions

- reconize and tailored to cultural differences
- learn language, cusoms and norms

237

Community psychology

- taken into communict via community cneters and schools
- respoects and recognizes logisitics that keep neediest people from seeking help