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Flashcards in MEMORY Deck (71):
1

MEMORY

- understanding how things are remembered and why they are forgotten

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3 Stages of Memory

1) Sensory memory
2) Short term memory
3) Long term memory

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Sensory memory

- last a few seconds
- connection between perception and memory

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Iconic Memory (SM)

- sensory memory of vision
- people can see more than they can remember

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George Sperling (SM)

- shown string of letters and people forgot other letters in time that it took to write down the first = partial report

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Partial report (SM)

- demonstrates that sensory memory (iconic memory) last only for a second
- e.g. Sperling experiment with string of letter

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Neisser (SM)

- coined the term icon
- found backward masking

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Icon (SM)

- brief visual memory that last for a second

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Backward Masking (SM)

- when a light or pattern is presented before the iconic image fast, the first image will be erased
- more successful if mask if similar to original stimulus

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Echoic memory

- sensory memory for auditory sensations

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Short Term Memory (STM)

- temporrary; last seconds

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Working Memory (STM)

- temporary memory that is needed to perform task

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George Miller (STM)

- capacity of 7 (+ or minus 2)

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Chunking (STM)

- grouping items to increase memory of STM

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How are items coded in STM?

- phonologically (auditory)

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Rehersal (STM)

- repeating or practicing to keep items in STM and transfer to LTM

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Primary (maintenance) rehersal (STM)

- repeating material to transfer into LTM

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Secondary (elaborative) rehersal (STM)

- organizing and understanding material to transfer into LTM

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Interference (STM)

- how informations or distractions cause one to forget items in STM

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Proactive Interference (STM)

- disruption of info that was learned before the new items are presented

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Proactive inhibition (STM

- caused by proactive interference
- problematic for recall

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Retroactive interference (STM)

- disruption of info that was learned aftr the new items is presetned

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Retroactive inhibition (STM)

- caused by reteroactive interference
- problematic for recall

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Long-term Memory (LTM)

- capable of permanent retention
- learned semantically

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How is LTM measured?

- by recognition, recall, and savings

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Recognition (LTM)

- recognize things e.g. multiple choice test

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Recall (LTM)

- generate information on own

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2 types of recall (LTM)

1) cued recall: e.g. fill in the blanks
2) free recall: no cue

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Savings (LTM)

- measures how much info about subject remains in LTM by assessing how long it task to learn something the second time vs. the first

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Encoding Specificity Principle (LTM)

- material is more likely remembered if retrieved in same context in which it was stored

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What is LTM not subject to? What is it subject to

NO: primacy and recency effects
YES: interference effects of STM (proactive and reteroactive interference)

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Episodic Memory

- details, events, and discrete knowledge

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Semantic Memory

- general knowledge of the world

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Procedural Memory

- "how to" do something

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Declarative Memory

- knowing a fact

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Explicit Memory

- something and being consciously aware of know it
e.g. a fact

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Implicit Memory

- Knowing something without being aware of it
e.g. HM not knowing he has done it before

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Hermann Ebbinghaus

- first to study memory systematically
- present subjects with list of syllables to study STM
- forgetting curve (and learning curve)

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Forgetting Curve

- presented by Hermann Ebbinghaus
- sharp drop in savings immediately after learning and levels off, with downward trend
- some doubt that nonsense syllables generalize to other types of memory

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Frederick Bartlett

- memory is reconstructive v. rote
- people remember ideas of stories vs. details

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Allan Paivo

- dual code hypothesis: items will be better remember if they are encoded both visually and semantically (icons and understanding)

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Dual Code Hypothesis

- things are better remembered if they are encoded both visually and semantically (icons and understanding)

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Paired-associate learning

- behavioursits explain memory through recall of one item cueing the recall of another

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Elizabeth Loftus

- memory of traumatic events are altered by events itself and way questions are asked

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Karl Lashley

- memories are stored diffusely in brain

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Donald Hebb (memory)

- invovles changes in synapses and neural pathways to make a memory tree

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E. R. Kanel

- similar ideas of hebb and memory tree by studying the Aplysia
- studies of brains in young chicks show that their brains are altered with learning and memory

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Brenda Milner

- wrote about HM who had a lesion in his hippocampus to stop epilepsy
- remember things from before surgery, STM intact but could not form long term memories

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Serial Learning

- a list is learned a recalled in order (serial recall)
- feedback is given after the entire list is recall
- subject to primacy and recency effects

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Primacy and recency effects

-first and last items are remember and the middles ones forgotten
- benefit from most rehearsal/exposure
= serial position curve

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Serial Position Curve

- cause by primacy and recency effects in a serial recall task

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Serial-anticipation learning

- asked to recall items one at a time and given feedback to each items then move onto next

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Paired-associate learning

- used when studying foreign languages
e.g. pairing English word with Spanish word

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Free-recall learning

- all items learned and recalled in any order without a cue

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Facto that make a list easier to learn and retrieve

- acoustic dissimilairty
- semantic dissimilairty
- brevity (both in term, and length of list)
- familiarity
- concreteness
- meaning
- importance to the subjec

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2 mains theories that suggest the origin of forgetting are:

1) decay theory
2) interference theory

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Decay theory

- AKA trace theory
- memories fade with time
- criticize for simplicity

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Interference theory

- competing information blocks retrieval
e.g. 2 groups and one sleeps while the other works on task; the sleeping group will remember more

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Mnemonics

- memory cue that help learning and recall
e.g. acroynm

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Generation-recognition model

- anything one might recall should be easily recognized
- e.g. principle of multiple choice

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Tip of the tongue phenomenon

- verge of retrieval but can't

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State-dependent memory

- same as state dependent-learning
- retrieval is more successful when it occurs in same state that encoding occurred
e.g. depressed ppl can't recall happy memories

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Clustering

- brain groups similar items into memory regardless if they are learned together
- grouped in conceptual/semantic hierarches

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Order of items on a list (recall task)

- subjects state the order of two items if they are far apart (e.g. 7 is before 593) than closer together (133 is before 136)

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Incidental learning

- measured by presenting subjects with items they are not suppose to try to memorize and test for learning

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Eidetic memory

- photographic memory
- more common in children and rural cultures

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Flashbulb memorys

- recollections burned into the brain

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Tachtiscope

- instrument used in cognitive or memory experiments
- presents visual material for fraction of second

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Zeigarnik effect

- tendency to recall uncompleted tasks better than completed ones

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Dual code hypothesis

- test material better retained with understanding (elaborative rehersal)
- rote memorization depends on only one link and susceptible to decay

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Decay theory is also called:

Trace theory