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Flashcards in LEARNING Deck (90):
1

Thorndike

- law of effect (precursor for operant conditioning)
- behavior revovles around reinforcement - do what rewards us and avoids what punishes us

2

Lewin

- theory of association (forerunner for behaviourism)
- we group things together based on the fact that they occur together in time and space e.g. associate things with rewards and cues

3

Pavlov

- classical/palovian conditioning
- teaching someone to respond to an NS (bell) by paring it with a US (food)

4

Watson

- school of behaviourism
- every behavior can be explained by stimulus-response chains (conditioning is key factor to this)
- only objective observable elements were important

5

Skinner

- experiment proved Thorndikes law of effect and Watson's ideas of behaviourism
- Used a skinner box to show that animals are influenced by reinforcement

6

Operant Conditioning

- behaviour is influnced by reinforcement

7

Classical conditioning

- using an NS and an UC (food) to create a relationship between the two so that dogs salivate in the presence of either NS or UC

8

Neutral Stimulus (NS)

-stimulus that does not a response
e.g. bell

9

Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)

- produces a response on it's own
e.g. food

10

Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

- NS that has been paired with the UCS so that the CS will produce a response

11

Unconditioned Response (UCR)

- Naturally occuring response to the UCS (food)

12

Conditioned Response (CR)

- Conditioned response that the CS elicits after conditioning (salivating to bell)
- same a the unconditioned response

13

Stimulus Conditioning

- the UCS and the CS are presented at the same time

14

Higher order conditioning/Second order conditioning

- previous CS now acts as the UCS
e.g. a bell that elicits the CR is now paired with another NS (a light) so that the light will eventually become the CS and produce the CR

15

Forward conditioning (name 2 type)

Delayed conditioning: presentation of CS begins before the UCS and last until the UCS is presented
e.g. ring bell continuously until food is presented

Trace conditioning: the CS is presented a terminated before the UCS is presented
e.g. ring bell and stop ringing then present food

16

Backward conditioning

- present the UCS and then the CS
- is ineffective and encourages inhibitory conditioning and will be even harder to pair in the future

17

Operant conditioning is also called:

- instrumental conditioning
- rats repeated behaviors that won them rewards and gave up on behaviours that did not

18

Shaping

- rats are rewarded for behaviours that brought them closer and close to actually pressing the bar
- also called differential reinforcement of successive approximations
- eventually lead rats to desired behaviours where they are rewarded only for the behaviour

19

Differential reinforcement of successive approximations

- shaping

20

Primary reinforcement

- natural reinforcement without requirement of learning e.g. water and food

21

Secondary reinforcement

- learned reinforcer
e.g. money

22

Positive reinforcement

- type or reward or positive even t that increases the likelihood of a particular response

23

Negative reinforcement

- is NOT punishment; is reinforcement through the removal of a negative event
e.g. monkey learns to keep riding a bike so a blarring noise stops

24

Reinforcement/puishment; positive/negative

- reinforcement = increase behaviours
- punishement = decreases behaviours
- positive - adding something
- negative - removing something

25

Continuous reinforcement schedule

- correct response with some form of reinforcement
- QUICKEST learning
- most FRAGILE; rewards stop = behaviours stop

26

Partial reinforcement schedule (4 types)

1) Fixed ratio scheduale
2) Variable ratio shedule
3) Fixed interval scheduale
4) Variable interval scheduale
(ratio = amount)
(interval = time)

27

Fixed ratio scheduale

- reinforcement delivered after a conistent numer of responses
- VULNERABLE to exctinction

28

Variable ratio scheduale

- learning takes MOST time
- LEAST exctinction
- reinforcements are delivered on a random # of responses
- cannot be predicted e.g. slot machines

29

Fixed interval schedule

- rewards come after a fixed period of time
- argue that little motivation is encouraged e.g. rat can nap in between 5 mins

30

Variable interval schedule

- rewards are delivered after different time periods
- SECOND MOST effect
e.g. waiting for the bus

31

Token Economy

- artificial mini-economy motivated by secondary reinforces (e.g. tokens)
- desirable behaviours reinforced with tokens and cashed in for primary reinforcers e.g candy

32

Primary/instinctual drive

- most motivated by primary drive e.g. hunger or thirst

33

Secondary/acquired drive

- e.g. money; learned drive that motivates us

34

Exploratory drive

- motivated by trying something new or a new enviornment

35

Theories in which humans are motivated to maintain homestatsis

- fritz heider's balance theory
- Charles Osgood
- Percy Tannenbaum's congruity theory
- Leon Festinger's cognitive dissonance theory

36

Homestatis

- what drives people is desired to balance feelings, ideas, and behviours

37

Drive reduction theory

- to balance homestasis

38

Clark Hull

- performance = drive x habit
- what has worked in the past to satisfy need

39

Edward Tolman

- performance = expectation x value
- AKA expectancy value theory
- people are motivated by goals that they think they might meet
- how important goals is

40

Victor Vroom

- applied theory of "performance = expectation x value" to organizations where people who are not incentivized are not motivated

41

Henry Murray and McClelland

- people are motivated by their need for achievement
- pursue success and avoid failure
- to feel successful

42

John Atikinson

- theory of motivation where people set realistic goals with low risks to feel successful

43

Neil Miller

- approach avoidance conflict
- goals have pros and cons; further to goal = see more pros
- closer to goals = see more cons

44

Hedonism

- people are motivated by what brings the most pleasure and least pain

45

The Premack principle

- motivated to do what they do not want to do by rewarding themselves afterwards with something they like e.g. desert after spinach

46

Arousal

- part of motivation and person must be adequately aroused to learn or perform

47

Donald Hebb

- medium amount of arousal is best for performance
- simple task = optimal level arousal is toward high end
- complex task = optimal level arousal is toward the low end

48

Yerkes-Dodson effect

- optimal level of arousal is never to extreme
- graph is an invereted U with lowest performance at low end

49

Stimulus

- event that an organism reacts to
- stimulus is 1st even in stimulus-response chain

50

Stimulus discrimination

- discriminate between different but similar stimulus e.g. phone and truck ringing are different

51

Stimulus generalization

- opposite of stimulus discrimination
- making same response to a group of stimuli
e.g. not all fire alarms sound the same but signal the same reaction

52

Undergeneralization

- failure to generalize a stimulus e.g. fire alarms sound different

53

Response learning

- learning where one links together chains of stimuli and responses
- e.g. one learns to leave a building after fire alarm

54

Perceptual or concept learning

- learning about something in general rather than specific stimulus-response chains
- e.g. learning history, rather than response

55

Tolman's experiments

- animals forming cognitive maps of mazes rather than simple escape routes
- (related to perceptual/concept learning)

56

Aversive conditioning

- uses punishment to decrease the likelihood of a beavhiour
e.g. taking a throw-up drink with their drug

57

Avoidance conditioning

- teaches animal how to avoid something animal doesn't want

58

Escape conditioning

- teaches animal to perform behavior to get away from a negative stimulus

59

Punishment

- promotes extinction of undesirable behaviours
- mixed reviews - not effective in long run because it carries too many negative effects

60

Automatic conditioning

- evokes response of autonmatic nervous system through training

61

State dependent learning

- what a person learns in one state is best recalled in that state

62

Extinction

- Reversal of conditioning; stop being a certain behaviour
- Withhold reinforcement or disassociating the behaviour from a particular cue
e.g. not giving candy to temper tamtrum

63

Spontaneous recovery

- reappearance of extinguished response even in absence of further conditioning

64

Latent learning

- takes place even without reinforcement and then learning is revealed at a later time
e.g. seeing chess move on TV then use them

65

Incidental learning

- Accidental learning
- unrelated items are group together during incidental learning
e.g. pets learn to dislike cars
- Opposite of intentional learning

66

Superstituous behavior

- someone learns that a specific action causes an event, when in reality 2 events are unrelated

67

Chaining

- act of linking together a series of behavious that ultimately result in reinforcement
- e.g. alphabet - one behaviours triggers next

68

Habituation

- decrease responsiveness as a result of familiarity with stimulus

69

Sensitization

- increase sensitivity because of a strong stimulus

70

Overshadowing

- classical conditioning concept
- inability to infer a realtionship between stimulus and response due to presence of a more prominent stimulus

71

Autoshaping

- experiments where apparatus allows an animal to control its reinforcement through behaviours
- animal shaping its own behaviour

72

Social learning theory

- individuals learn through culture

73

Observational learning

- simple the act of learning something by watching

74

Modeling

- specific concept within social learning
- learning an behaving by imitating others e.g. Bobo doll

75

John Garcia

- animals are programmed through evolution to make certain connections

76

Prepardness

- some connections are easier to learn than others

77

Garcia effect

- strongest in children
- connection between naseau and food is made when it causes them to become sick

78

M. E. Olds

- eperiments which electrical stimulation of pleasure centers in brain were used as positive reinforcement of behaviour
- goes against drive-reduction theory

79

Continuous motor task

- easier to learn than discrete motor task
- one continuous motion that continues naturally
e.g. riding a bike

80

Discrete motor task

- divided into different parts that do not faciliate the recall of each other
e.g. setting up chessboard

81

Positive transfer

- previous learning that make it easier to learn another task later

82

Negative transfer

- previous learning that makes it more difficult to learn a new task

83

Age (how if affects learning)

- primed to learn between 3 -20
- constant from 20-50
- tapers off at 50

84

Learning curve

- described by Hermann Ebbinghaus
- rate of learning change over time = positive acceleration increases and then becomes a negative accelerated curve where learning decreases

85

Herman Ebbinghaus

- described the learning curve

86

Aptitude

- set of characteristics indicative of person's ability to learn

87

Cooperative learning

- students working on project together

88

Scaffolding learning

- only provides assistance when concepts are beyond ability of student
- teacher aids with less to encourage student's independence

89

Overjustification effect

- getting paid for something you enjoy leads to a reduction in enjoyment

90

LEARNING

- relatively permanent or stable change in behaviour a the result of experience