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Flashcards in LIFESPAND DEVELOPMENTAL Deck (63):
1

DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY

- stud of transition that accompanies physical growth or maturation

2

Fertilization

- occurs in fallopian tube
- zygote goes through 3 stages of gestation

3

Germinal stsge

- last 2 weeks
- zygote moves down follopain tube and gros in 64 cells
- implants itself into wall of the uterus

4

Embyronic stage

- lasts until 2 month
- organ formation

5

Fetal stages

- last from 3 months to birth
- quantitative growth occurs during this stage and movement (quickening)

6

when does HY antigentcuase testis to form?

- 6 weeks

7

When does testosteron form?

- 3 months

8

Neonate

- newborn whos behaviour is reflexive

9

Reflexes

1) sucking
2) head turning
3) moro - throw out limbs
4) Babinski - fanning of toes
5) palmar - grabbing something

10

Adolescence

- from 13-19 years where puberty begins
- Adrenal and pituitary gland secrete estrogen or androgen for secondary sex characteristics

11

Nature vs. nurture

- use monozygotic and dizygotic twins to explore genetic and environmental influences

12

Piaget

- cognitive development in child
- interaction between internal maturation and external epeirnce creates qualitiative changes
- language development determined by these stages

13

Adaptation (piaget)

- occurs through assimilation and accomodation (fitting new info into ideas and modifying cognitive schema to incorporate new information)
- order of steps do not vary

14

Sensorimotor (1) - cognitive development

- 0-2 years
-relflexive behaviour
- circular reactions - manipulate environment
- object permance - know object exists even when cannot see it
- representation - visualizing and putting word to objects

15

Preoperational (2) - cognitive development

- 2- 7 years
- egocentric understaingin
- acquire words
- can't perform mental operations
- can't understand quantity

16

Concrete operation (3) - cognitive development

- 7-12 years
- understand concrete realtionships e.g. math
- conservation - changes in shape doesn't mean changes in volume

17

Formal operations (4) - cognitive development

- 12 years
- understand abstract relationships e.g. logic and reasoning

18

Gelman

- Piaget underestimated cognitive ability ot preschoolers
- can deal with ideas e.g. quanitity in small set of objects

19

Moral development

- 3 stages by piaget

20

Stage 1 moral development

- 4-7 years
- imitates rule following behaviour, does not question acceptance

21

Stage 2 moral development

- 7-11 years
- understand rules and follows them

22

Stage 3 moral development

- 12+ years
- applies abstract thinking to rules
- can change rules if all parties agree

23

Freud personality development

- driving force for humans was sexual gratification
- parental over-or underindulgence at particular stage may result in fixation
- life stressors later in life may result in regression (to earlier stage)

24

Regression (frued peronaliy development)

- life stressors later in life may results in regression

25

Oral (1)

- birth - 19 mos
- recieve pleasure orally through sucking, biting etc.

26

Anal (2)

- 18 mos to 3 years
- recieves pleasure from self-stimulation of genitals
- boys develop oedipus complex (jealous of father) and girls develop electra complex (penis envy)
- boys motivated to suppres lust by castration anxiety

27

Latency (3)

- adolescence
- repressed sexuality
- identify with same sex friends and focus on growing up

28

Genital (4)

- adolescnce-adulthood
- hormones awaken and sexual instinct
- love objects are now nonfamilial

29

Kohlberg

- moral development by analyzing response in children though 9 hypothetical moral dilemnas

30

Heinz dilemna

- woman is dying and needs expensive medication
- husband can't afford medication - should she steal it or let her die?

31

Preconventional/premoral (1) kohlberg

- "if I steal medicine, I will get in trouble"
Level 1: should avoid punishment
Level 2: should gain rewards

32

Conventional/morality of conformity (2) kohlberg

- "stelaing is against the law"
Level 2: should gain approval
Level 3: should follow law and authority

33

Postconventional/morality of self-accepted principles (3) kohlberg

" if its unjust that money is an obstacle to life. it is ethical that I save my wife"
Level 5: beyond black and white of law; attentive to rights and social welfare
Level 6: makes decision based on abstract ethical principles

34

Carol Gilligan

- Kohlebr's moral development was biased towards males becuase it dominated by rules, whereas womans morality focuses more on compassion

35

Erik Erikson

- life span development
- each stage of life has it's own unique psychosocial conflict to resolve

36

Birth-18mos (life span)

- trust vs. istrust
- resolution = trust

37

18 mos - 3 years (life span)

- autonomy vs. shame and doubt
- resoltuion = independnece

38

3-6 years (life span)

- initiative vs. guilty
- resolution = purpose

39

6-puberty (life span)

- industry vs. inferiorrity
- resolution = competency

40

teen years (life span)

- identity vs. role confusion
- resolution = sense of self
- gave term to "identity crisis"

41

Young adult (life span)

- intimacy vs. isolation
- resolution = love

42

Middle age (life span)

- producitivty vs. stagnation
- resoltuion = producitivty and caring

43

Old age (life span)

- ego integrity vs. despair
- resolution = wisdom and integrity

44

Bowlby

- infants are motivated to attach to other for positive reason and for negative ones (avoiding fear)
- critical during senitive period to prevent character and stability problems

45

Ainsworth

- studied attachment through strange situation
- overall children demonstrateed stranger anxity (crying when stranger enterd)
- children responded differently to mothers who entered the room
- work carried on by Mary Main

46

Securely attached

- ran an clung to their mothers
- more readily explore the environment

47

Avoidant attached

- ignored or avoided their mothers

48

Ambivalent attached

- infants squirmed or kciekd if their mothers tried to comfort them

49

Baumrind

- studied relationship between parenting stlyes and personality development
- authortarian, authoritative and permissive

50

Authoritarian

- demandng, unaffection
- had children who were withdrawn and unhappy

51

Permissive parenting

- affectionate, not strict
- had children who were happy but lacking elf-control and self-reliance

52

Authoritative parent

- affection, firm but fair
- had chidren who were self-confident, assertive, friendly, happy and high functioning
- help children understand and accept norms of society and how to function

53

John watson's behavioustic approach to development

- chidren were pasively molded by their environment and that behaviour emerges through imiation of their parents

54

Internal maturational factors

- control motor development for the first 2 years of life

55

Interacting with infants through attention and affection

- fosters their physical, emotional, IQ development
- neglectd children show mental retardation and morality

56

Gesseel

- nature provided a blueprint for development through maturation and environment filled in the details

57

Children who identify as aggressive in early age:

- remain moderatly aggressive at later stages

58

Sex-typed beahviour

- beahviour that seems sterotypical for gender
- low at young and older life
- highest during adolescence

59

Boys who reach puberty sooner:

- psychologicall and socially advantagous

60

Career aspirations of children:

- usually similar to their parents

61

Hermaphrodie or intersex

- both male and female genitals
- most likely result of female fetus beng expose to higher levels of testosterone

62

Symbolic play

- children 1-2 years pretend roles and use objects to represent things
- apparent that they understand conceps of having one object stand for the other

63

Parallel play

- when children 2-3 are standing next to eachother and playing in similar style but by themselves and not interacting with others