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Psychology GRE > SENSATION AND PERCEPTION > Flashcards

Flashcards in SENSATION AND PERCEPTION Deck (123):
1

SENSATION + PERCEPTION

- feeling from physical stimulation
- how we organize or experience the sensations

2

3 Steps in Sensation

1) Reception
2) Sensory transduction
3) Neural pathways

3

Reception

- receptors for sense detect stimulus

4

Receptive field

- part of world that triggers neurons

5

Sensory transduction

- physical senstion is changed into electrical messages and brain can understand

6

Neural Pathways

- info is understood

7

Nativist theory

- perception and cognition are innate

8

Structuralist theory (bottom up or top down?)

- perception is sum total of sensory input
- world is understood by bottom-up processing

9

Gestalt psychology (bottom up or top down?)

- revolves around perception and that people see world as organized wholes
- world is understood through top down processing

10

Current thinking of sensation and perception theory?

- perception is innate and learned/conceptual

11

Perceptual development

- increasing ability for child to make finer discrimination among stimuli

12

James Gibb

- perceptual development

13

Optic array

- all of a thing a person sees

14

Photons and waves

- measure brightness and wavelengths

15

Hue

- color
- dominant wavelength of light

16

Brightness

-physical intensity

17

Cornea

- clear protective coating on eye

18

Lens

- located behind cornea

19

Ciliary muscle

- bend the lens to accommodate and focus image of outside world onto retina

20

Retina

- back of the eye that receive lights images from lens
- composed of photoreceptor cells

21

Receptor cells

- on the retina are responsible for sensory transduction

22

How does sensory transduction occur?

- through chemical alteration of photopigments

23

Rods

- sensitive to dim light and used for night vision
- concntrated on sides of retina for periperal vision

24

Cones

- concentrated on center of retina (fovea)
- greatest visual acuity for fine detail
- sees color and daylight
- better than rods because there are fewer cones per ganglion cell

25

Fovea

- center of retina where cones are concentrated

26

Process of light passing through receptors

- after light passes through receptors ==> horizional cells ==> bipolar cells ==> amacrine cells ==> ganglion cells (make up the optic nerve)

27

Describe the visual pathway starting from the eyes

- eyes connect to cerebral cortex through visual pathway
- consist of optic nerve connects each eye to brain ==> optic chiasm (half of fibers from optic nerve cross) ==> striate cortex ==> visual assocation areas of cortex

28

Optic chiams

- where 50% of fibers from one eye cross over and join optic nerve from other eye
- ensures brain see full picture
- left visual field is processed in right side of brain and vice versa

29

Opponent-color or opponent process

- theory by Ewald Hering
- 2 types of color sensitive cells exists = blue-yellow and red-green
- one color is stimulated then other color is habituated

30

Afterimage

- Ewald Hering
- focusing on one color then looking at white image will produce afterimage of the habituated color e.g. red ==> wall ==> green afterimage

31

Tri-color theory or component theory

- Young and Helmholtz
- 3 types of receptors in retina:
1) red cones
2) green cones
3) blue cones

32

Young and Helmholtz

- Tri-color theory or component theory

33

Where does the opponent process theory

- at work in lateral geniculate body

34

Where does the tri-color theory seem to be at work?

- in the retina

35

Lateral inhibition

- eyes to see contrast and prevents repetitive information from being sent to brain
- once receptor is stimulated the nearby ones are inhibited

36

What is Helmholtz famous for?

- discovering color blindness

37

Davic Hubel and Torsten Wiesel

-cells in visual cortex are complex and specialized to respond to certain types of stimuli
e.g. vertical lines

38

Visual Field

- entire span that can be percieve or detected by eye at given moment

39

Figure an Ground Relationship

- relationship between meaningful part of picture (figure) ad background

40

Binocular disparity

- most important depth cue
- view objects from 2 different angles which allow us to create a 3D picture

41

Apparent size

- clues about how far away an objects is by knowing how big the object should be

42

Interposition

- overlap of objects shows which object is closer

43

Linear perspective

- showing us features we are familiar with
e.g. 2 lines converging in the distance

44

Texture gradient

- how we see texture or fine detail differently from different surfaces

45

Motion Parallax

- how movement is percieved through the displacement of objects over time
- motions seems different for nearby and far away places e.g. fa away ships sem to move more slowley

46

Gibson and walk

-visual cliff apparatus study to see if depth perception is innate

47

Afterimage

- aka McCollough effect are percieved bc of fatigue receptors
- oppositional system for eeing color = once one is overstimulated it can no longer response and is overshadowed by it's opposite

48

Dark adaptation

- regeneration of retinal pigment

49

Mental set

- why we see what we expect to see

50

Pragnanz

- overarching Gestalt idea that experience will be organized as meaningful, symmetrical and simple whenever possible

51

Closure

- tendency to complete incomplete figures

52

Proximity

- tendency to group together items that are near eachother

53

Continuation or good continution

- tendency to crate a whole or detailed figure based on our expectations rather than what is seen

54

Symmetry

- tendency to make figures out of symmetrical images

55

Constancy

- how people percieve objects in way that they are familiar with them regardless of changes in acual retinal image
e.g. book is always percieved as rectangle

56

Size constancy

- knowing that an elephant is large no matter how it might appear

57

Color constancy

- knowing the color of object even with tinted glass

58

Minimum principle

- tendency to see what is easiest of logical

59

Ambiguous figures

- percieved as 2 different things depending on how you look at them

60

Figure- ground reversal patterns

- ambiguous figures percieved as 2 different things depending on which part you see as the figure and which part you see as the background

61

Impossible objects

- been drawn and can be perceived but are geometrically impossible

62

Moon illusion

- shows how context affects perception
- moons look larger when seen on horizon than seen in te sky
- visual cues make moon seeem more distant than sky

63

Phi phenomenon

- tendency to percieve smooth motion
- explains why motions if inferrd when there is none by flashing lights

64

Apparent motion

- when motion is inferred when there is non
e.g. in cartoons

65

Muller-Lyer illusion

- most famous visual illusion
- 2 horizontal lines of equal lengths appear unequal because of orientation of arrow that marks the end
- inward arrows make line seem shorter

66

Ponzo illusion

- 2 horiztontal lines of equal length appear unequal becuase of 2 vertical line that slant inward

67

Autokinetic effect

- single point of light viewed in dark will appear to shake or move
- reason is constant movement in our own eyes

68

Purkinje shift

- way that percieved color brightness changes with level of illumination in room
- lower illumination the extreme colors are less bright

69

Pattern recognition

- explained by template matching and feature detection

70

Template matching

- pick out shapes that match what you are looking for

71

Feature detection

- concentrate on shape you are looking for to scan

72

Prosopagnosia

- inability to recognize faces

73

Robert Fantz

- infants prefer complex and sensical displays

74

Absolute threshold

- minimum amount of stimuli that can be detected 50% of time

75

Differential threshold

- AKA just noticable difference
- minimm difference that occur between 2 stimuli for them to percieve as different
- defined by E.H. Weber

76

E.H. Weber

- differential threshold or just noticable difference

77

Terminal threshold

- upper limit above which the stimuli can no longer be percieved

78

Weber's law

- stimulus need to be increased by a constant fraction of original value in order to be noticed as different
==> K(the constnt fraction) = change in increase in intenity for JND/original intensity

79

Fechner's law

- more complicated tan Weber's law
- strenght of stimuli must be signiicantly increased to produce a slight difference in sensation
==> S(sensation strengh) = K log R (a logarithm of the original intensity)

80

J.A. Swet's Theroy of Signal Detection (TSD)

- subjects detect stimuli because they want to
- factors in motivation
- explains why subjects respond inconsistently

81

Response bias

- related to theory of signal detect
- interplay between response bias and stimulus intesnsity determines response

82

False alarm

- detect stimulus that is not there

83

Hit

- correctly sensing a stimulus

84

Miss

- failing to detect a present stimulus

85

Correct rejection

- Rightly stating that there is no stimulus

86

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC)

- graphical representations of a subject's sensitivity to a stimulus

87

What 2 things are humans sensitive to in sound?

- pitch and loudness

88

Amplitude

- physical intensity of sound wave that determines loudness

89

Frequency

- pace of vibrations per second for sound that determines pitch
- low frequency = low pitch

90

How is frequency measured?

- in hertz (Hz)
- humans best hear around 100 Hz

91

What are the 3 major part of the ear:

1) Outer ear
2) Middle ear
3) Inner ear

92

Outer ear

- conists of parts you can see
- pinna and auditory canal
- vibrations travel down the canal to the middle ear

93

Middle ear

- begins with the tympanic membrane (aka eardrum) that is stretched behind the auditory canal
- 3 small bones (ossicles) the last which is stapes is behind the tympanic memrane
- vibrations bump into membrane and ossicles

94

Ossicles

1) Malleus
2) Incus
2) Stapes
- found behind the tympanic membrane

95

Inner ear

- responsible for hearing a balance
- begins with oval window (tapped upon by stapes)
- vibrations are sent to cochlea (contain basilar membrane and organ of corti for hearing) by activating the hair-cell receptors

96

Traveling wave

- movement from basilar membrane's hair-cell receptors

97

Vestibular sacs

- respond to hair movement and sensitive to tilt to give us sense of balance

98

Receptor cells (in ear)

- activate nerve cells that change information into electrical message that brain processes

99

What consists of the auditory system that leads to the auditory cortex?

- olivary nucleas
- inferior colliculus
- medial geniculate body

100

Helmholtz famous for what beside color blindness?

- place resonance theory of sound perception

101

Place resonance theory of sound perception

- different parts of basilar membrane respond to different frequencies

102

Sound localization

- achieved in various ways
- e.g. degree in which sounds are more intense than others give us an idea of the origin of sound
- high frequencies = localized by intensity
- low frquencies = localized by phase differneces

103

Dichotic presentation

- used to study auditory perception and selective attention

104

Selective attention using dichotic presentation

- verbal messages are presented into ear
- message are different and subject is asked to shadow (repeat) after one message
- process of tuning in to something specific

105

What is the most primitive sense?

Olfaction

106

Olfactory bulb

- hair recptors send their message to
- lies in base of the brain
- strongly connected to memory and perception of taste

107

Gustation (name 5)

1) sweet
2) bitter
3) sour
4) salty
5) umami

108

Papillae

- aka taste buds
- saliva mixes with food so flavour can flow into papillae

109

What 4 sense can human skin feel?

- touch
- pain
- warmth
- cold

110

Free nerve endings

- detect pain and changes in temperature

111

Meissner's corpuscles

- detect touch or contact

112

Pacinian corpuscles

- touch receptors that respond to displacement of skin

113

- 2 point threshold

- the size of 2 point threshold for touch is largely determined by density and layout of nerves in skin

114

Physiological zero

- temperature that is sensed as neither warm nor cold

115

Ronald Melzack and Wall's

- Gate control theory of pain
- pain is a process vs. simple sensation
- interaction of large an small nerve fibers that run to and from spine
- pain percieved depending on various factors e.g cognition

116

Phantom limb pain

- feel sensation of pain in limbs that don't exist in amputees

117

Endorphins

- neuromodulators that kick in to reduce perception of pain

118

Orientating reflex

- tendency to turn toward an object that has touched you

119

Simulations

- perceptual cue that make artifical situations seem real

120

Subliminal perception

- perceiving a stimulus without conscious awareness

121

Kinesthetic sense or proprioception

- information from receptors in joints and muscles telling you where the position of your body is

122

Osmoreceptors

- deal with thirst

123

Afterimage AKA

The McCollough effect