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Flashcards in PERSONALITY Deck (69):
1

PERSONALITY

- study of why people act the way they do and why different people act differently
- overlap between clinical theorist and personality

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Old school: type theory

- based on physical appearance

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Phrenology (type theory)

- practice of examinging head and skull shape used to determine personality

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Sheldon (type theory)

- system based on somatotypes (body)
- 3 types

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Endomorph

- short, plump body = pleasure seeking, social behaviour

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Mesomorph

- muscular, atheltic body = energetic, aggressive behaviour

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Ectomorph

- skinny, fragile body = inhibited, intellectural behaviour

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Alder (personality typology)

- most recent than sheldon to use personality typology
- choleric, phelgmatic, melancholic, sanguine

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New school: trait theory

- allport emphasize ideograhpic approach to personality

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Ideographic approach

- captures unique, defining characteristics

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Nomothetic approach

- uses large numbers of ppl to study commonalites of personality

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Allport's concern in ideographic approch

- proprium or propriate function (his version of the ego)
- bevlievd that proprium acted on a consistent basis via traits that had develoed through experiene

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Traits

- stable characteristics of beavhiour that person exhibits

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Lexical approach

- picking all tratis out of dictioning

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People act differnt in different situations because of:

- trait hierarchy
- cardinal trait, central trait, secondary traits
- situations may cause conflicting secondary traits but will always have consistent cardinal traits

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States

- temporary feelings or characteristiccs

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Taxonomies

- statistical techniques to create organized categorization systems for personality

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Cattell's personality facors

- used factor analysis in reduce allport 5000 traits
- identified 16 bipolar source traits e.g. relaxed-tense

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Big 5

- using computer models
- could not replicate cattells' 16 personality factors but found 5 superfactors

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O dimension

- openness to experience, intellectural curiosity

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C dimension

- conscienctiousness

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E dimension

- extraversion, enthusiam

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A dimension

- agreeableness

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N dimension

- neuroticism, nervousnesss

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Dispositionits

- orgianlly dominated personality theory
- emphasized internal determinants of behaviour

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Situationsits

- such as behaviourist aruge that only circusmtances determine baheviour

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Interactionists

- combination of stalbe, internal factors and situations influence behaviour

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Epstien and Mischel

- trait and type theories are problematic
- assume person's beahviour is stable across situations and fail to account for circumstnaces

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Consistency paradox

- that people may behave inconsistently
- problematic for labeling people as having 1 internal disposition

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Cantor

- cogntiive prototpe approach
- cognitive behaviour is examined in social situtions
- consistency of behaviour is result of cognitive process vs. personality traits

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Heritability of personality

- 40-50% based on twin studies

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Nature nuture debate

- most alive in gender difference
- after accounting for social reinforcement, few gender difference exists

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Deux and women's success

- sterotypical male task are attributed to luck and men's success is attributed to skill
- gender is social construct
- women have lower self-esteem because also contriute success to luck

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Bem - androgyny

- possesing both M and F qualities
- Bem Sex Role Inventory
- have higher self-esteem, lower anxiety, more adapatiblity than counterparts

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Horner

- females shunned masculine type success not because of fear of failure or interest but because they feared success and it's negative reprucssion e.g resentment and rejection

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Maccoby and Jacklin

- critcized sex differnce
- few existed and could not be explained by social learning
- consistent differences are females have greater verbal skills and males have greater visual/spatial ability
- attributed to biological and hormal differnces

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Depression - woman vs. men

- woman 2x

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Friedman and rosenman

- studied type A personality
- drive, competition, aggressiveness, tension and hostility
- found in upper class men

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Dahstrom

- linked type A personality to heart disease

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Authoritarianmis

- dispositon to view world as full of power relationships
- highly domineering or highly submissivee depdneing on if they are in power or around someone more powerful

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F- scale

- measures authoritarianism
- conventional, aggression, sterotyping and anti-introspective individuals

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Eysenck

- used factor analysis to find underlying tratis of 2 personality type dimensions
- introversion-extraversion and stable-unstable (neurotic)

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2 dimesnions of Eysenck formed 4 quandrants

- phlegmatic
- melancholic
- choleric
- sanguine

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2 dimensions of Eysenck using factor analysis of the 2 personality-type dimensions

- introversion-extraversion
- stable-unstable (neuroticism)

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Maslow (personality)

- hierarchy of needs

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Kelley (personality)

- personal constructs (conscious ideas about the self, others, and situations) determine personality and behaviours

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Epstien (personality)

- critical personality trait theory

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External locus of control

- personality characteristics that cause one to view events as the results of luck or fate
- too much of this breeds helplessness

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Internal locus of control

- cause a person to view events as the outcome of her own actions
- too much of this can breed self-blame
(developed by Julian Rotter)

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Julian Rotter

- external and internal locus of control

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Implicit theories

- people often make assumptions about the disposition of an individual based on the actions of that person

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Dispositional attribution

- tendency for other to think that actions are caused by person's personality than by the situation

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Fundamental attribution error

- tendency for others to think that ctions are caused more by a person's personality than by situation

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Barnum effect

- tendency to agree with and accept personality inerpretations that are provided

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Pheomenological view of personaity types

- focuses on individuals' unique self and experiences

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Self awareness (state)

- temporary condition of being aware of how you are thinking, feeling or doing

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Mirrors (personality)

- make people more self-aware
- small mirrors = not make people self-aware because we see small mirrors all the time
- large = see ourselves as others do

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Self-monitoring

- characterized by scutiny of one's own behaviour, motivation to act appropriately rather than honeslty, and ability to mask true feelings

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Self-consciousness

- a trait
- refers to how one generally becomes self-aware
- if you pay alot of attention to yourself = self-aware

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Self-esteem

- knowing that you are worthwhile and being in touch with your actual streghts
- 50% people percieve themselves accurately
- 35% percieve themselves narcissitically

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Self-efficacy

- person's beliefs that they can effectively perform a task

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Narcissim

- believe you are better than everyone
- unrealistic

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Self-handicapping

- self-defeating beahviour that allows one to dismiss failure

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Learned helplessness

- Seligman
- how expeirne can change peope's personalities
- when feel out of control, negative explanatory style
- person gives up
- countered with learned optimism

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Learned optimism

- countes learned helplessness

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Costa and McCrae

- personality changes very little after age 30

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Stimulus-seeking

- individuals have great need for arousal

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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and Californi Personality Inventory (CPI)

- 2 most famous personality tests

69

Henry Murray

- develop Thematic Apperception test (TAT)
- ambiguous story card
- people would project their own needs onto these cards e.g. need for achievement