THINKING/COGNITION Flashcards Preview

Psychology GRE > THINKING/COGNITION > Flashcards

Flashcards in THINKING/COGNITION Deck (42):
1

COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

- study of thinking, processing, and reasoning

2

Concepts

- represent relationship between 2 things

3

Hypothesis

- ideas used to test relationship and then form concepts

4

Mental set/set

- preconeived notion of how to look at problem
- help future problem solving

5

Schema

- oranized knowledged from experience
- includes ideas about events, objects and attributes
- new events are categorized based on how well they match existing schemas

6

Scripts

- ideas about way events typically unfold

7

Prototypes

- represenative or usual or type of event or object

8

Insight

- new perspective on old problem

9

Convergent thinking

- used to find one solution to problem (first defined by J.P. Guilford)

10

J.P. Guilford

- defined convergent an divergent thinking

11

Divergent thinking

- more than on possibility exists in situation
e.g. playing chess

12

Functional fixedness

- develop closed minds about certain object's functions
- can't think divergently about objects

13

Problem space

- sum of total possible moves to solve problem

14

Algorithms

- problem solving strategies that consider every possible solution and eventually find right solution
- takes a long time

15

Heuristics

- problem solving strategies that are rules of thumb/short-cuts that have worked in the past
- don't guaurantee but solution is faster than algorithms

16

Metacognition

- thinking about your own thinking

17

Mediation

- intervening mental process that occurs between stimulu and response
- reminds us how to repond based on ideas of past learning

18

Computer simulation models

- designed to solve problems like humans

19

Logic theorist --> general problem solver

- type of computer simulation models
- designed by Allen Newell and Herbert Simon

20

Allen Newell and Herbert Simon

- designed first computer simulation model = logic theorist ==> general problem solver

21

Deductive reasoning

- leads to specific conclusions that must follow info given

22

Inductive reasoning

- leads to general rules that are inferred from specifics

23

Logical reasoning errors (3):

1) atomosphere effect: conclusions infuenced by way information is phrased
2) semantic effect: believe in conclusions because of what you think is correct rather than what logically follows info given
3) confirmation bias: using info that confirms what you already think

24

Decision making

- solving on problem until an acceptable solution is found
- process of finding solution is based on assumption that is rational or irrational
- solution found by reaoning or emotion

25

Intelligence

- capacity to use knowledge to improve achievement in an environment

26

Reaction time

- measure cognitive processing
AKA latency
- declines with age

27

Elizabeth Loftus and Allan Collins

- people have hierachical semantic networks in their memory that group together related items
- more closer the 2 items = faster subject can link them together
e.g. " a canary is a bird" vs. "a toaster is a bird"

28

Allan Collins and Ross Quillan

- people make decisions about relationships between items by searching cognitive semantic hierarchies
- father apart = longer to see connection
AKA parallel distributive processing (or connectionism)

29

Long term semantic memory network (it takes longer to name pictures or words?)

- takes longer to make associations between pictures than between words
- because pictures get turned into words before association is made

30

Semantic priming

- in work recognition task
- decreases reaction time if 2 items are related because it actives the node of the second item in the semantic hierarchy
e.g. "test" --> "GRE" vs. "test" --> "lobster"

31

Stroop effect

- decreased speed of NAMING THE COLOR INK used to print words because the word itsef is a color

32

Bottom-up processing

- recognizing items from data (data driven)

33

Top-down processing

- guided by larger concepts

34

Automatic processing

- effortlessly done because task is subsumed under higher organization process

35

Eye movement and gaze durations

- indicators of information processing while reading

36

Saccades

- eye movement from one fixation point another

37

James-Lange Theory of Emotion

- bodily reactions to situations cause emotion
1) physiological response to situation
2) we feel emotion

38

Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion

AKA emergency theory
- emotions and bodily reactions occur simultaneously

39

Stanley Schacheter and Jerome Singer

- proposed cognitive theory of emotion = Schachter-Singer Theory

40

Schacheter-Singer Theory

- similar to James-Lange Theory of Emotion
- emotions are product of physiological reactions
- how to interpret the state is key
*the cognition we attach to situations determines which emotion we feel

41

Cannon bard theory is also called:

Emergency theory

42

Connectionism is also called

Parallel distributive processing