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Psychology GRE > LANGUAGE > Flashcards

Flashcards in LANGUAGE Deck (34):
1

Phonemes

- sounds that carry no meaning

2

Phonics

- learning to read by sounding out the phonemes

3

Morphemes

- made up of phonemes
- smallest unit of language
e.g. boy and ing

4

Phrase

- group of words put together to function as a single syntactic part of sentence

5

Syntax

- arrangement of words into sentence

6

Grammer

- rules of interrelationship between morphemes and syntax

7

Morphology/morphological rules

- grammers rules on how to group morphemes

8

Prosody

- tone inflections
- infants can differentiate between different sounds than different expression of same sounds

9

Noam Chomsky

- most important psycholinguists
- transformational grammer and language acquisition device (LAD)

10

Transformational grammer

- differentiates between surface structure and deep structure in language

11

Surface structure

- way words are organized
- can be organized differently

12

Deep structure

- underlying meaning of sentences
- deep structure can be the same but the surface structure is different

13

Language acqusition device (LAD)

- inborn ability to adopt generatie grammer rules of the language
- children need to be exposed to a language in order to easily apply LAD (not through learning, memorizing, conditioning)

14

Ovverregulization

- overapplication of grammer rules
e.g. sheeps

15

Overextension

- generalizing with names for things
e.g. anything fuzzy = doggie

16

Telegraphic speech

- speech without articles or extras
e.g. me go

17

Holophrastic speech

- young child uses one word (holophrases) to convey a whole sentence
e.g. me = me want

18

Who learns language faster? Girls vs. boys

Girls

19

Bilingual children are faster or slower to learn language

Slower

20

Reading and writing processes in the brain

- reading and understanding and writing and processing language are processed in the same brain area
- slight differences e.g. can read but can't understand speech

21

Alexia

- unable to read

22

Agraphia

- Unable to write

23

Name sequence of speech in children

1) noun
2) verb

24

Describe first phrases children use

1) 1 noun, 1 verb
2) 2 nouns

25

Language acquisition milestones:

1 year: speaks first words
2 years: 50+ words in 2 or 3 word phrases
3 years: 1000+ words vocabulary with grammer erros
4 years: grammar problems and random exceptions

26

Benjamin Whorf

- how culture says things influences that culture's perspective

27

Whorfian hypothesis

- important of non sexist language
- howevre, cultures with no words for certain color canstill recognize them

28

Roger Brown

- children's understaning of grammar rules deveops as they make a hypothesis about how syntax works and self correct with evidence

29

Katherine Nelson

- anguage develops with onset o active speech rather than only listening

30

Wiliam Labov

- "Black english" found that there is internal structure and simply not incorrect English

31

Vyotsky and Luria

- development of word meaning
- altered by experience
- language is a tool invovled in development of abstract thinking

32

Charles Osgood

- semantics, word meanings by creating semantic differential charts and people plot meaning onto graphs

33

Semantic differential charts

- people with similar backgrounds and interests plot words similarily = word connotations

34

Word connotations

- implied meaning in words for cultures or subcultures