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Flashcards in Clinical Psychology/Intervention Deck (157):
1

Best treatment for chronic pain

Comprehensive tx, focusing on teaching coping skills to alleviate pain & increasing sense of control, incorporates hypnosis

2

6 phases of classical Adlerian psychotherapy

Support, Encouragement, Insight, Change, Challenge, MetaTherapy; there are 12 stages within these phases reflecting progressive strategies to awaken client's underdeveloped sense of community

3

According to Ellis' Rational Emotive Therapy, what is self indoctrination?

During early childhood, children internalize critical attitude of parents & perpetuate that as they grow older

4

Treatment of Specific Phobia

Brief In Vivo Exposure, often within 2 to 4 sessions; cognitive techniques may not improve effects substantially

5

Smith & Glass (1977)

1st meta analysis: allows researchers to stat compare several independent studies to yield single effect size indicating magnitude of IV's effect

6

3 Categories of Behavioral Interventions

Based on:
Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Social Learning Theory

7

2 Broad categories of Class Cond Interventions

Counterconditioning
Classical Extinction

8

Interventions based on counterconditioning principles

Aversive Conditioning
Systematic Desensitization
Sensate Focus
Assertiveness Training

9

Reciprocal Inhibition

Foundational principle of counterconditioning
Idea that 2 incompatible responses cannot be experienced at same time, so stronger will inhibit the weaker

10

Aversive Cond

Only for deviant bxs;
CS paired w/stronger negative stim
Ex: smoking paired w/electric shock (in vivo)
Ex: smoking paired w/imagining lungs blackening (covert sensitization)
Short term benefit, high rates of recidivism

11

Theorist assoc w/Systematic Desensitization

Joseph Wolpe

12

Systematic Desens most commonly treats ____

specific phobias

13

Systematic Desensitization

Pt taught to relax deeply
Then create anxiety hierarchy
Teach client to relax while exposing to least to highest anxiety provoking event
*CS paired w/deep relaxation

14

True or False: Systematic Desens is the most efficacious tx for specific phobia.

False- prolonged & intense exposure (flooding) more effective

15

Sensate Focus

Masters & Johnson; reduce sexual perf anxiety by initially abstaining from intercourse, then focus on body massage until anxiety eliminated
*Targets the arousal sex cycle
*CS paired w/massage

16

Sexual Response Cycles (4 stages)

Masters & Johnson
Excitement
Plateau
Orgasm
Resolution

17

Assertiveness training

Social anxiety (CS) paired w/assertive bxs, leading to reduced distress & more effective coping
start w/role plays move to real life situations

18

Interventions based on Classical Extinction

Flooding
Implosive Therapy
*CS presented repeatedly w/o US until CS no longer elicits CR

19

Flooding

Often don't know what the US was to elicit fear response to CS, but tx focused on exposure to feared situation w/o option of fleeing
*Prolonged exposure (45 min) more effective than multiple brief periods

20

Implosive Therapy

Stampfl; imagination only, exposure to feared object & therapist interps psychosexual themes

21

2 Broad Categories of Intervention based on Operant Conditioning

Reinforcement
Punishment (or aversive control of bx)

22

Functional Assessment of Bx

Performed prior to operant conditioning based tx
Define target bx
Determine antecedents & consequences
Id contingencies (reinf & punishers) that maintain the bx
*this allows for creation of bx mod program

23

3 types of reinforcers

Primary- reinforce everyone (food)
Secondary-acquire value thru experience (praise)
Generalized Conditioned Reinforcers-not inherently reinforcing, but all access to other reinforcers (money)

24

Interventions based on reinforcement

Shaping
Token Economy
Contingency Contracting
Premack Principle
Differential Reinforcement
Self Reinforcement

25

Contingency contracting

Focuses on bx in naturalistic environ, between 2 ppl
Id bxs ppl most want from one another, then negotiate a contract for their exchange

26

Differential Reinf of other bxs

combines extinction w/pos reinf
Ex: Ignore E when she whines, respond enthusiastically when she speaks like a big girl

27

Stimulus control

Narrow range of stimuli that elicit a particular bx (don't have junk food around) & develop incompatible responses (go for walk instead of snacking)

28

Interventions based on punishment or aversive control of bx

Positive punishment
Escape Learning
Avoidance learning
Overcorrection

29

Escape learning

Aversive stim cannot be avoided, but can be stopped by emitting the desired bx
Ex: person being mugged can make assailant go away by giving wallet

30

Avoidance learning

Aversive stim can be avoided if you emit desired bx in time; there is typically a cue or discriminative stim to prompt bx
Ex: pay bills on time, avoid late fee

31

Overcorrection

Punishment that involves restitution of some kind & physical guidance
Ex: child makes mess in living room, must clean up that room plus another

32

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy

Ellis; 1st CBT approach
Coined term irrational beliefs
Proposed ABC model to clarify role of cognition in bx
Not the Activating event itself, but the person's beliefs about the event that dictate C
D-Disputing intervention
E-adoption of more effective belief
F-new feelings

33

Major procedural components of REBT

direct instruction
persuasion
logical disputation
*provides alt philosophical system by relying on reason as modifying beliefs

34

Beck's CBT emphasizes ___ ___ ___, where clients are taught to test the validity of their beliefs; often uses ____ ___

empirical hypothesis testing; socratic questioning

35

In Beck's CBT theory, psych symptoms are the result of ___

automatic maladaptive thoughts/logical errors

36

Beck's Maladaptive Cognitive Triad

Negative view of the self
Negative view of the world
Negative view of the future

37

Meichenbaum's Cognitive Behavior Modification: 2 programs

Self instructional training
Stress Inoculation Training
*Emphasized use of positive self statements

38

Self instruction training has been empirically supported as a tx for ____

ADHD

39

Self Instruction therapy: 5 steps

Meichenbaum
1. Therapist Modeling
2. Therapist Verbalization
3. Patient Verbalization
4. Patient silently talks through task
5. Independent task perf

40

Stress Inoculation Training: Central concept

Meichenbaum: bolstering a person's repertoire of coping resp to a milder stressor decreases vulnerability to more severe stress

41

3 phases of Stress Inoculation training

1. Education & cognitive prep- taught about importance of cognitive interp of a situation in dictating stress response
2. Coping skills acquisition (relaxation, coping self statements, imagery, thought stopping)
3. Application of skills in imagination & in vivo

42

Self Control Model of Depression

Rehm; views depression & low rate of bx (i.e. anhedonia, lack of involvement) as a result of:
neg self evaluations
lack of self reinforcement
high rates of self punishment

43

Marlatt's model of Relapse Prevention

Views addiction as an overlearned habit, where relapse is inevitable, pt taught to view relapse as a setback to be learned from

44

Marlatt proposed that the most common relapse trigger is _____

pt's emotional state.

45

3 parts structuring personality, according to Freud

The Id
The Ego
The SuperEgo

46

The ID

primitive, instinctual part of psyche
basic drives- libido (eros) & aggression (thanatos
operates on pleasure principle

47

The Ego

Operates on reality principle-awareness of world & consequences
Main task: suspend or satisfy Id impulses through socially acceptable means

48

The Superego

Forces ego to satisfy id in a manner that is moral & ethical
Guilt is primary weapon
believed to evolve as the child successfully passes through the Oedipal stage

49

Freud: neurotic anxiety the result of ____, and leads to ____, so these forbidden impulses cannot enter consciousness

id impulses breaking through the ego; defense mechanisms

50

Freud: Repression

most common defense mech; "motivated forgetting"
**Fundamental aspect of ALL defense mechanisms (making the conscious unconscious)

51

Freud: Regression

guarding against anxiety by retreating to earlier, less demanding stage of dev

52

Freud: Projection

Seeing one's unconscious urges in another person's bx
suspicion common outcome

53

Freud: Displacement

Transference of emotions to a substitute object or symbolic representation
Can play a role in phobias- ex: fear of snakes related to underlying fear of sex

54

Freud:Reaction Formation

Engage in bxs exact opposite of id urges.

55

Freud: Intellectualization

Distancing self from feelings

56

Freud: Sublimation

finding soc acceptable ways of discharging energy from unconscious desires

57

Freud: Rationalization

come up w/self satisfying yet incorrect reason's for one's bx

58

Alloplastic vs autoplastic defenses
hint: pers d/os use alloplastic & neurotics use autoplastic

alloplastic: blame ext environ
autoplastic: blame self

59

Psychoanalysis involves 4 steps:

Clarification
Confrontation
Interpretation
Working through
*free association is cornerstone

60

Extensions of Psychoanalysis/Psychodynamic Theories

Ego Psych
Object Relations
Self Psych
Neo-Freudians

61

Major dynamic theorist departing from psychoanalysis

Adler (Ind Psych)
Jung (Analytical psych)

62

Ego Psychology proposes that the ego ____

acts as the guide to mastery of life, not as the helpless rider of the id

63

Major Ego Psychologists

Heinz Hartmann
Anna Freud
Erik Erikson

64

Heinz Hartmann

"Father of ego psych"
proposed parallel dev of id and ego; ppl not only driven by passion but also by thought
differentiated btwn defensive ego fxs & ego autonomous fxs
"conflict free sphere" for ego fxs that develop outside of conflict

65

Anna Freud

Noted the ego's ability to reconcile drive conflicts w/demands of reality
Applied psychoanalysis to children, but allowed strong positive bond and interpreted words over play

66

Erik Erikson

Combined ego psych w/psychosoc life span theory: human bx result of interaction btwn internal world of the psyche & external social world
Proposed dev occurs in response to social crises, series of stages

67

Object Relations Theory

Focused on capacity to have mutually satisfying interpersonal relationships
Object= relationship of infant to another person
Proposed an inherent drive toward satisfying object relationships
Therapy focused on integrating split off parts of self

68

Melanie Klein

Object Relations theorist;
Described splitting as major defense mech when infant has hostile feelings toward loved object, which prevents object constancy (ability to recognize the object as one person w/good and bad tendencies
-Worked w/children, saw play as a form of free association

69

D.W. Winnicott

Emphasized importance of being a "good enough mother
Described pathology as result of abandoning true self for a false self
Importance of Transitional Object to link children to mothers

70

Margaret Mahler

Object Relations Theorist
Proposed development through processes of separation (become distinct phys entity through distancing) & individuation (become psychologically ind thru dev of mature ego fxs)

71

Self Psychology

KOHUT
Focused on infantile development of narcissism-healthy/natural focus on getting needs met
Appr caretaking satisfies selfobject needs (mirroring, idealizing, and twinship)

72

Self psychologists focus on ____ ___ w/pts and prefer __ __ interpretations

empathic attunement
experience near

73

According to Neo Freudians, pathology results from:

faulty learning
characterological maladaptive style of interacting w/environment

74

In therapy, NeoFreudians:

focus on identifying & correcting misinterpretations re:the bx of others

75

Major Neo-Freudian theorists

Harry Stack Sullivan
Karen Horney
Erich Fromm

76

Harry Stack Sullivan

neo Freudian
Interpersonal theory-personality only exists in emotional exchange w/other ppl

77

Sullivan's 3 modes of existence

Prototaxic-birth to 7 mos, isolated sensory exp
Parataxic-8 to 11 mos, sequential sensations serves as only conception of causality
Syntaxic- 12 mos to 2 yrs; causal sensation, logic, ability to predict based on knowledge

78

Interpersonal Therapy (IPT): 4 commonly targeted areas

Based largely on Sullivan's work
Focused on here & now
4 commonly targeted areas:
Grief
Role dispute
Role Transition
Interpersonal deficits

79

Karen Horney

NeoFreudian
Neurosis is culturally defined construct
3 neurotic trends:
1. Moving compliantly toward others
2. Moving aggressively toward others
3. Moving detachedly away from others

80

Erich Fromm

NeoFreudian
Incorp concepts from Marx & existentialism
believed freedom frightened ppl
2 modes of existence: "having" and "being"
healthier ppl live in "being" mode

81

Alfred Adler

Asserted humans motivated by social (aggressive) rather than sexual urges
Happiness related to social connectedness & ability to transcend self
Pathology result of desire for belonging mistakenly channeled into power, attention, inadequacy or revenge

82

Acc to Adler, a person is more likely to engage in maladaptive bx if they _____

are more focused on struggle for power at the expense of social interest

83

Adler proposed that neurosis is result of compensation for natural feelings of ____by adopting unproductive lifestyle

Inadequacy

84

In therapy Adlerians look for ___ and _____; focus on encouraging the pt

mistaken goals; faulty assumptions

85

Adlerians emphasize a ____ view of bx, meaning that bx is seen as determined by future rather than the past

teleological

86

STEP Program

Systematic Training in Effective Parenting
Adler's work applied to education & parenting
Democratic approach to parenting that values child's contributions
Understand misbehavior as reflecting 4 mistaken goals (attention, power, revenge, giving up)

87

Jungian Psychology: structure of psyche incl:

Conscious ego
Personal unconscious
Collective unconscious

88

Collective Unconscious

Contains archetypes-primordial images/ideas that are inherited & common to all humans from beg of life

89

In Jungian Psychology, neurosis is result of

struggle to free from interference of archetypes w/progress toward personality integration
-we are striving toward psychological maturity, or individuation

90

Humanism/Existentialism focus on entering the pt's subjective world, also known as a ______ approach

phenomenological

91

Hum & Existentialism emphasize____ and focus on ___

freedom, choice, meaning, purpose, autonomy; the present

92

Key figure in humanist psych, ___, believed we proceed thru hierarchy of needs toward self actualization

Maslow

93

Existentialists:

believe no internal nature, no intrinsic meaning, have to make something of what is meaningless

94

Client/Person Centered Therapy

Rogers
Central concept: Phenomenal self, or private work of experience & meaning; therapist creates accepting atmosphere where clients grow thru the rel, form more pos vioew of self, and direct themselves toward more self actualizing patterns of bx
therapist clarifies feelings, without judging or elaborating on them

95

3 characteristics of Client Centered Therapy

Empathy
Warmth
Genuineness

96

Gestalt Therapy

Perls
Focus of therapy is becoming aware of whole personality by discovering those aspects blocked from awareness
Perceptions based on gestalts (combos of figure-what is attended to- and ground- what is ignored)
*therapy is active & focused on awareness, experience, affective expression, not cognitive analysis of bx

97

Gestalt techniques

Empty chair-take both sides of conflict, pretend to speak to someone for whom client has unresolved feelings
Dreams- client take on different roles in the dream, reflecting different aspects of the person

98

Reality Therapy

Glasser
Key feature is responsibility- clarify pt's values & help them evaluate current bx in relation to values
Help clients decide on realistic solutions, use of contracts

99

Choice Theory, or Control Theory

Key element of reality therapy
proposes we create an inner "need satisfying world" and bx is an attempt to control our perceptions of the external world to fit the internal world

100

Schools Without Failures

based on Glasser's reality therapy
used to reduce dropout rates

101

Transactional Analysis (TA)

Berne
looks at intent behind communication and eliminates deceit
Involves structural analysis, transactional analysis, analysis of games, & script analysis
concept of life scripts

102

Conditions treated by hypnosis

Chronic pain-medium trance (relief) deep trance (like anesthesia)
asthma
conversion sxs
substance use

103

Common biofeedback procedures

Thermal biofeedback- treats migraines & renoads dis
Electromyography (EMG)-measures surface muscle tension; treats tension headaches, TMJ, back pain
Electroencephalography (EEG)-brain wave; ADHD, seizure disorders; targets alpha waves
Galvanic Skin Response-sweatiness, treats GAD

104

Feminist therapists

View sexism as underlying problems, don't focus on pathology
Egalitarian relationship
Advocate for sociopolitical change

105

Transtheoretical Model of Bx Change

Prochaska
Stages of Change
Precontemplation
Contemplation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance

106

Five Factor Theory of Personality/The Big 5
OCEAN

Costa & McCrae
Factor analysis of previous research on pers traits yielded 5 basic traits:
Openness to experience
Conscientiousness
Extroversion
Agreeableness
Neuroticism-high scores are insecure, anxious, moody

107

____ is the big 5 trait most consistently assoc w/job success

Conscientiousness

108

2 Major Theories influencing Family Therapy

General Systems Theory
Cybernetics

109

Cybernetics

Circular nature of feedback loops;
neg feedback loops maintain status quo in the system
pos feedback loops increases change

110

Marital schism & marital skew

Lidz-psychodynamic family therapy
2 types of deviant marital relationships
Schism- severe discord between parents, seek support from children, attempt to diminish worth of other parent
Skew- skewed toward meeting needs of one family member at the expense of another
*Both lack role reciprocity (common understanding & acceptance of each other's roles & values)
Can use family sculpting as a technique

111

Object Relations Family Therapy

Framo
Family members project unwanted elements of self onto others, such that therapy is focused on increasing awareness re: what is being projected
Framo known for meeting w/entire family of origin when working w/a troubled couple

112

Structural Family Therapy

Minuchin
Family viewed as a system, assessed along dimensions of:
Hierarchy of power
Clarity & firmness of boundaries
Sig alliances & splits
*Therapist acts as expert, diagnosing & correcting dysfunctional elements
Therapist 1st joins the family, then shifts family's positions to strengthen parental hierarchy/create clear & flexible boundaries

113

Minuchin's 3 chronic boundary problems

Triangulation-child caught in middle, ultimately becomes paralyzed
Detouring-false sense of harmony btwn parents, who blame one child for family difficulties
Stable Coalition-parent unites w/child against other parent

114

In structural family therapy, what strategies unbalance family's homeostasis

Therapist taking sides, blaming, coalitions

115

Communications Family Therapists area also called the ___ group. They coined the term ___ ___

MRI; double bind

116

3 elements of double bind communication acc to MRI group

1. injunction telling person that if they do or don't do something, they will be punished
2. second nonverbal injunction conflicting with the first at an abstract level
3. tertiary injunction prohibiting victim from escaping the field

117

Communications family therapy sometimes uses paradoxical interventions, like _____

prescribing the symptom

118

Strategic Family Therapy

Haley
combo of structural & comm family therapies
Normal family fxing involves flexibility, repertoire for problem soliving, clear rules around hierarchy
*Tx focused on resolving presenting concerns without addressing underlying conflicts and pathology

119

Systemic Family Therapy

Milan group
General Systems theory, cyberkinetics (feedback loops), components of strategic theory (communication, reframing, paradox)

120

Key Aspects of Systemic Family Therapy

Circular Questioning- aims at gathering info while also introducing new info into family system. ex- each family member is asked to express views on relationships & differences between other family members
Prescription of Rituals- alters family's direction; typically incl secrecy, isolation, recording in notebooks, parental outings framed as disappearance

121

Family Systems Therapy

Bowen; Central concepts:
Family Emotional System (oneness of emotions within family, definite patterns of reactivity)
Multigenerational transmission process of pathology
Originated genograms
Assesses degree to which families are fused
and emotional triangles

122

Goal of tx in Family Systems Therapy

Personal differentiation from family of origin
Therapist works to shift the "hot triangle" & works w/most psych available family member to achieve enough differentiation to avoid triangle happening again

123

Solution Focused Therapy

Steve de Shazer; brief 3 to 4 sessions
Clients encouraged to focus on strengths, id solutions
Built on assumption that expectations are powerful

124

Techniques assoc w/solution focused therapy

Miracle question-if this prob was miraculously solved, how would you know? What would be different?
Exception question- Think about a time you didn't have this problem, what was different in your life?
Scaling question- rate problem on scale from 0 to 10, helps reduce all or nothing thinking

125

Narrative Therapy

Michael White
Pathology thought to be result of ppl developing stories that "problem saturated descriptions" filled w/powerlessness
Client asked to re-write story as struggle for control w/sx
Ex- encopretic boy writes story about "sneaky poo" writes about time didn't give into sneaky poo. when there is success, might ask "what does this tell you about yourself?"

126

Behavioral Family Therapy

Believes pathology result of families reinforcing neg bx through attention
Interventions: changing contingencies of social reinf & improving communication

127

Cog Bx Family Therapy

Therapist assesses cog appraisals family members make of each other, promotes positive relationship related cognitions

128

Marital Bx Therapy

Involves:
Behavioral analysis of couple
Positive reciprocity established
Communication is taught
Problem solving skills improved

129

Richard Stuart Marital Therapy

Incorp operant learning & social exchange theory
proposes bx maintained in rel by ratio of costs to benefits, where daily bx exchanges contr to satisfaction or dissatisfaction
Strategy of caring days: each day spouse performs a bx requested by spouse

130

Yalom's 12 therapeutic benefits of group treatment

Insight
Instillation of hope
Universality
Imparting Info
Altruism
Corrective recapitulation of primary family group
Dev of socializing techniques
Imitative bx
Interpersonal learning
Group cohesiveness
Catharsis
Existential factor

131

_____ is the most critical component of group therapy success

Cohesiveness- greater acceptance & understanding, permit more conflict

132

3 stages of group tx, acc to Yalom

Initial Stage- participation hesitant, restricted, superficial interactions, members give & seek advice, mostly talk to therapists not each other
Second Stage- conflict among group members, rebellion toward leaders, attempts at dominance
Third Stage-only if 2nd successfully negotiated, closeness, intimacy, cohesion

133

Ideal group composition includes members who are ___ in term of ___ and ___ in terms of ego strength

Heterogeneous; conflict; homogeneous

134

Homeostatic equilibrium

Basis of crisis theory, proposes that at equil, usual coping skills are sufficient. During crisis, person faced w/obstacle insurmountable by customary problem solving

135

4 Phases of Crisis Situation (Caplan)

1. Beginning, emotional tension, disorganization, efforts to cope w/previously learned mechanisms
2. Existing coping doesn't work, further disorganization
3. Increased tension, help seeking, change of direction/goals
4. If these efforts don't work, extensive pers disorganization & emotional breakdown may occur

136

Steps of crisis tx

Estab rapport
Review steps leading to crisis
Help ct gain understanding of maladaptive reactions
Help ct develop more adaptive ways of coping
*Goal is restoration to pre-crisis level of fxing, different from therapy where goal is growth

137

Community Mental Health Centers Act (1963)

Root of community psych movement, estab comm mental health centers to provide continuum of services for early intervention

138

Goal of Community Psych

focuses on prevention, extends services beyond agencies & clinics to more natural settings (churches, schools, etc), allows for training of non professionals

139

4 Categories of Consultation (Caplan)
*Client centered-focused on a client
*Consultee Centered-focused on group of clients

Client centered case consultation-individual case
Consultee Centered case consultation-focused on helping therapist problem solve difficulties working w/clients
Consultee Centered Administrative consult-focused on targeting consultee's issues that are impeding program change
Program centered admin consult-focus on development, expansion, or modification of a program

140

3 Levels of prevention in Community Psych

Primary-prevent occurrence of new cases of a disease or disorder, often focused on education & competence training Ex- Purple ribbon program, vaccinations

Secondary- Early id & prompt tx of an illness or d/o that already exists Ex- academic screening throughout schooling; psychological first aid after a tragedy

Tertiary- focused on reducing negative impact of an established, serious issue; ex- day treatment centers for schiz, 12 step programs

141

Expressive vs. Instrumental Spousal abuse

Expressive- less deliberate, result of emotional reactivity
Instrumental- More deliberate means of control
*left untreatment, expressive likely to become instrumental

142

Impact of divorce acc to age of child

3 to 6 yr old- feel responsible
7 to 12- decreased school perf
Adol-feel could have prevented divorce, but hurt & critical of parents
Recovery tends to take 3 to 5 years

143

Meta analysis of divorce outcomes

Adult children of divorced parents:
higher depression, marital probs, lower SES & health

144

Earliest meta analysis

Eysenck (1952)- found that ppl treated related to neuroticism did worse over 2 year period, highly criticized methods

145

Spontaneous improvement rate in psychotherapy

around 40%

146

Avg effect size of treatment

.85, so treated person better off that 80% of untreated sample

147

Client variable impacting tx response

Outcome research indicates that charac of pt account for most variability in effectiveness
Pt's ability to relate & learn new skills primary factor

148

3 therapist factors accounting for 35% of treatment outcome variance

Attractiveness
Trustworthiness
Expertness

149

Methods for monitoring tx implementation, utilization, & quality

Total Quality Management
Quality Assurance
Utilization Review
Risk Management

150

5 premises of Total Quality Management

1. Customer Focus
2. Total involvement (all team members aware of what other members are doing)
3. Measurement
4. Systematic Support - innovative problem solving
5. Continuous Improvement

151

Outcome research: what factors are most important for lack of improvement in psychotherapy?

Client factors (dx, motivation, severity)

152

Theme interference problems

Problems of the supervisee/consultee that impact pt progress; could be targeted with consultee-centered case consultation

153

Thomas Szasz,

whose somewhat controversial book, "The Myth of Mental Illness," argues that psychiatric diagnoses are labels devoid of significance.

154

Avg effect size for psychotherapy outcome research

.85 (treated ppl do about .85 of a standard deviation better than untreated)

155

Jungian view of transference

projection of the personal and collective unconscious.

156

M Seligman's theory of learned optimism

attributions of optimistic ppl are opposite of depressed ppl
external, unstable, specific attributions for neg life events

157

Basic requirements of token economy

Target bxs
Choice of reinforcer
Rate of exchange