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Flashcards in Memory Deck (44):
1

3 Stages of Memory

Sensory
Short Term
Long Term

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Sensory Memory

Involves transforming sensory input into data that can be understood & stored as a visual or auditory image (must transfer to short term memory to do so)

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Iconic Memory lasts ___

1/2 second

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Echoic Memory lasts ____

up to 4 seconds

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Selective Attention

Only sensory input that is attended to can pass into short term memory, can be deliberate or automatic

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Short Term Memory

Processes ongoing info to store memories for short duration (up to 30 sec)

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2 components of Short Term Memory

Primary Memory
Working Memory

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Primary Memory

Passive "holding tank" for info requiring no manipulation
i.e. digits in sequence

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Working Memory

Holds & manipulates info

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How is short term memory enhanced or transferred to long term memory?

Rehearsal, or deliberate repetition

11

Capacity of Short Term Memory

Seven items, plus or minus 2

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Chunking

Involves transforming separate items into meaningful units that are more easily recalled

13

Dual Coding System for STM

Verbal & Visual Channels

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Some theorists divide Long Term Memory into _____ and ____

Recent Memory (2 wks)
Remote (2 yrs or more)

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Some research supports importance of ___ ___ for long term memory

REM sleep, where LTM is reviewed, improved, systematically catalogued

16

Concepts assoc w/LTM

Retrieval
Priming
Zeigarnik Effect
Redintigration
Landmark Events
Flashbult Memories
Prospective Memory
Effects of Hypnosis

17

Retrieval

Accessing info from LTM into STM for analysis & awareness
Often a cue stimulates the retrieval process
Recognition easier than recall b/c recog acts like a table of contents

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Priming

Exposure to a stimulus, which makes it easier for person to recog the stim at a later time

19

Zeigarnik Effect

When you come to an impasse with a task involving recall, brain continues to work unconsciously until the solution is obtained.

20

Redintigration

When something rapidly unlocks a chain of memories, like a smell from childhood

21

Landmark Events

Helps w/retrieval by anchoring to important events in life. We can use those events to locate other events occurring around the same time
ex: using wedding to remember when we got hank

22

Flashbulb Memories

Vivid memories of events, typically traumatic. can remember what happened before & after in addition to the event itself

23

Prospective Memory

Remembering that you planned to do something at a particular time

24

Effects of Hypnosis

Tends to elicit more false memories than real ones, more likely to use imagination to fill in gaps in memories, then feel very confident of accuracy; also vulnerable to leading questions by the hypnotizer

25

Accuracy of LTM

Process of transfer to LTM & retrieval often distorts original info
Likely b/c LTM relies on semantic meaning, which is subjective
Also make inferences about info and these (which may not be accurate) and these are stored in LTM

26

Sleeper Effect

Source of Info forgotten over time, while message itself is retained

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Areas where accuracy of LTM significantly questioned

Eyewitness reports
Repressed memories

28

Popular classification schema for memory

Declarative/explicit
Procedural/implicit

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Declarative Memory (Explicit)

Conscious recollection of info or experiences

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Divisions of Declarative Memory

Semantic-meaning of words, facts, abstract info or images
Episodic-autobiographical events, retrieval requires reconstructing the event in your mind

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Procedural Memory (Implicit)

Recollection of skills, physical operations, procedures that are automatic & without conscious awareness

32

William Scoville

Discovered critical role of hippocampus in long term memory through removal of pt's temporal lobes to treat seizures, resulting in anterograde amnesia

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Brain areas involved in memory

Frontal Lobes (esp STM)
Temporal cortex
Hippocampus
Thalamus
Mamillary bodies
Basal Forebrain

34

Neurotransmitter implicated in memory
*Need this to ACE the test

Acetylcholine (probs w/prod of ACh in Alzheimers

35

Long term potentiation

Repeated stim of a synapse thru rehearsal leaves to chem & structural changes to the receiving neuron, increases sensitivity of neuron to stimulation

36

kinases

Enzymes involved in LTP (long term potentiation), changes dendrites

37

Research on forgetting

Ebbinghaus
Discovered forget most fully memorized nonsense info within first hour (only applies to info that is meaningless to us)

38

Serial Position Effect

Immediate recall- Remember words at beginning & end of list better than those in middle
Delayed recall- remember words at beginning best

39

Types of Amnesia

Anterograde-impaired ability to create new memories
Retrograde-Loss of memories before injury or disease
Posttraumatic-loss of memory for short time after a trauma
Paramnesia-Distortion of memory, confabulation

40

Factors involved in forgetting

Retrieval Failure
Interference (Retroactive or Proactive)-other learned material interferes
Decay-difficult to separate from interference
Mood Congruent Memory
State Dependent Memory
Motivated Forgetting-proposed by Freud-unconscious blocking of painful memory

41

Strategies to Enhance Memory

Chunking
Imagery & Association
Recreation of context
Study strategies (distributed practice, rehearsal at reg spaced intervals)
Mnemonics

42

types of Mnemonics

Method of Loci-placing items to be remembered in different spots in an imaginary room
Peg Word system-Memorize set of 10 visual images that are pegs on which to hang ideas
Word Associations
Substitute Word Technique

43

Amnesia vs Inhibition

Amnesia-inability to recall
Inhibition- interference w/learning

44

Interference theory of memory

proposes that we remember best when we minimize interference immediately after we learn something
For example- go to sleep directly after studying