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Flashcards in Psychopharmacology Deck (41):
1

Major classes of psychotropic medications (5)

Antipsychotics, antidepressants, antianxiety agents, mood stabilizers, stimulants

2

Most common Typical or Traditional Antipsychotics (Neuroleptics or Major Tranquilizers)

Thorazine (chlorpromazine)
Prolixin (fluphenazine)
Haldol (haloperidol)

3

Traditional Antipsychotics better at treating ___ sxs of psychosis

Positive- hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking

4

Atypical or Novel Antipsychotics

Clorazil (clozapine)
Risperdal (risperidone)
Zyprexa (olanzapine)
Seroquel (quetipine)
Geodon (ziprasidone)
Abilify (ariprazole)

5

Atypical Antipsychotics are equally effective in treating __ and __ sx of schizophrenia. They are often preferred over traditional antipsyh meds because they does not cause ____ ______.

Positive; Negative
Extrapyramidal symptoms

6

Disorders treated with Antipsychotics

Schizophrenia
Delirium
Brief Psychotic Disorder
Tourette's Disorder
Autism/PDD
PTSD
Depression
Delusional Disorder
Some indications for dementia

7

Common side effects of lower potency antipsychotics

Sedation, anticholinergic effects, hypotension, lowers seizure threshold

8

Common side effects of high potency antipsychotics

Extrapyramidal sxs

9

___ ____ is a potential side effect of all traditional antipsychotics

Tardive dyskinesia

10

Anticholinergic Effects
*Hint: Dry everything out or hold it in

Dry mouth
constipation
urinary retention
blurred vision
nasal congestion
confusion
decreased memory

11

Orthostatic hypotension

lightheaded when stand up

12

Treatment of Extrapyramidal Sxs

Anticholinergic agents (Cogentin, Artane)

13

Extrapyramidal Symptoms

Mvmt related sxs
Parkinsonism-shuffling, tremor, mask face, rigidity
Akathisia: dysphoria, agitation, rocking, shifting wt
Dystonia-painful spasms in neck, back, tongue, larynx

14

Tardive dyskinesia

Abnormal movements of the lips, tongue, jaw, limbs, and trunk
generally arises 6 months after tx, plateaus after 3 to 6 yrs

15

Tx of Tardive dyskinesia

Monitoring pts to see if med needs to be changed or dosage reduced
Neuroleptics temporarily reduce sxs

16

The Atypical Antipsychotic with no side effect of tardive dyskinesia

Clozaril (clozapine)

17

What types of medications exacerbate tardive Dyskinesia?

anticholinergic agents

18

Agranulocytosis

Potentially lethal side effect, mostly assoc w/Clozaril (clozapine)
Sudden drop in granulocyte count leading to sore throat & high fever

19

___ is the atypical antipsychotic that is only prescribed when other antipsychotics have failed due to risk of lethal side effect, ___.

Clozaril; agranulocytosis

20

True of False: Antipsychotics can cause addiction and tolerance

False, but there can be withdrawal if a high dosage is stopped suddenly

21

Most Common Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs)
*Hint: end w/"amine" or "tyline"

Elavil (amitriptyline)
Anafranil (clomipramine)
Tofranil (imipramine)

22

SSRIs

Prozac (fluoxetine)
Zoloft (sertraline)
Paxil (paroxetine)
Cymbalta (duloxetine)
Strattera (atomoxetine)
Serafem (fluoxetine)
Luvox (fluvoxamine)
Celexa (citalopram)
Lexapro (escitalopram)

23

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)

Inhibit activity of monoamine oxidase
Nardil (phenelzine)
Parnate (tranylcypromine)

24

Mechanism of Action of Antidepressants

Most block reuptake of norepinephrine and/or serotonin

25

Common meds for depression w/sleep problems

Desyrel (trazodone)
Sinequan (doxepin)
Due to hypnotic effects

26

Common tx for psychotic depression

TCAs combined w/antipsychotic

27

Common tx for inpt, melancholic, geriatric depression

TCAs

28

Common tx for atypical depressions

Treatment resistant depressions, depr w/panic disorder
MAOIs
SSRIs may eventually be effective too

29

Best tx for mild depression

psychotherapy; placebos equally effective as medication

30

Tricyclics can induce ___ in 10-15% of patients

Mania

31

Common tx for Panic Disorder

Tofranil (imipramine)
Paxil (paroxetine)
Prozac (fluoxetine)

32

Common tx of OCD

Anafranil (clomipramine)
Prozac & other SSRIs

33

Common tx of Chronic Pain

TCAs
Elavil (amitryptiline)
Norpramin (desipramine)
Sinequan (doxepin)

34

Common tx of bulimia

SSRIs
TCAs (Norpramin, Tofranil)

35

Common tx of premature ejaculation

TCA- Anafranil (clomipramine)
SSRI- Paxil (paroxetine)

36

Side effects of Tricyclics

TCAs can trigger mania in bipolar patients
Anticholinergic effects (dry mouth, memory issues, confusion)
Sedation
Orthostatic hypotension
Weight gain
Nausea
Sexual dysfunction

37

Side effects of SSRIs

Headaches
Nervousness
Restlessness
Insomnia
GI distress
sexual dysfunction

38

Side effects of MAOIs

Orthostatic hypotension
Weight gain
Edema
Sexual dysfunction
Insomnia
Tyramine Induced Hypertensive Crisis (must follow strict dietary guidelines to avoid excess tyramine)

39

2 Classes of Antidepr that are highly lethal by overdose

TCAs
MAOIs

40

Contraindicators for TCAs

heart conditions
High BP
seizures

41

what is the most common side effect of antipsychotic medications?

Akathisia