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Flashcards in Social Psych Deck (71):
1

Minority Influence (within conformity research

Hollander: In order to successfully challenge majority opinion, person must first conform to establish credibility which allows for accumulation of Idiosyncracy credits (like brownie points)

2

Heider's theory

Originator of attribution theory, proposed ppl either make Dispositional (internal cause of bx) or Situational (outside cause of bx) Attributions

3

Harold Kelley proposed that attributions are based on what 3 types of information?

Consistency-does person behave same way over time?
Distinctiveness-is the bx unique to a particular situation (high) or happen all the time (low)?
Consensus-would other ppl in situation behave similarly?

4

Kelley proposed that ppl make ____ attributions for behaviors high in consistency and low in distinctiveness and consensus

Internal

5

Kelley proposed that pp make ____ attributions for bxs that are all high in consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus

External

6

Weiner proposed the dimension of ____ to attributions

Stability (applied to internal & external factors)

7

Learned helplessness

When person attributes negative events to internal, stable, global causes, they are more like to feel depressed and helpless

8

Abramson & Alloy research on depressed persons appraisals

not necessarily more pessimistic than non depressed ind, but more realistic, proposed idea of "sadder but wiser."

9

Fundamental Attribution Bias

*Only about another's bx, when they fail
Attribute others' bx to dispositional factors and underestimate impact of situational variables; contributes to blaming the victim

10

Actor-Observer Bias

*Attributions about one's own and others' bx-when both FAIL
Attribute own actions to situational factors, but others bx to dispositional factors

11

Self Serving Bias

*Only about your bx, but diff attribution for success vs. failure
Attribute own successes to dispositional factors, but failures to situational factors

12

Heuristic

Guidelines ppl use to categorize other ppl, situations or events

13

Availability Heuristic

Estimate the likelihood of a situation based on how easily they can recall it
Ex: ppl rate death by firearms as more freq than asthma b/c of news coverage

14

Representative Heuristic

Make judgments about others or situations based on what you believe is typical example of a particular category
Ex: assumption that victim of spousal abuse is female

15

Simulation heuristic

Ppl develop mental images of situations then use mental images to make judgments about real events in their lives
Ex: Jealous partner imagines cheating, believes it's really happening

16

George Kelly's theory

Personal Construct Theory

17

Personal Construct Theory

Fundamental postulate: We perceive the world according to what we expect to see, based on our experiences

18

Repertory Grid Technique

Assoc w/George Kelly's Personal Construct theory, tech to map a person's constructs w/o contamination of interviewer

19

3 components of an Attitude

Cognitive
Affective
Behavioral

20

LaPiere Study

He traveled throughout US w/a Chinese couple and only one restaurant refused service in spite of widespread prejudice at that time, by survey all of the restaurants said they would refuse to serve Asians

21

Situational Constraint

People may act against their beliefs to avoid making a scene

22

Balance theory

Heider- re:attitude formation & change; ppl change attitudes when there is imbalance between perspectives of ppl involved

23

Symmetry Theory

Newcomb, re: attitude formation & change; The stronger the bond between ppl, the more any imbalance will be felt, leading to stronger motivation to change attitudes

24

Congruity Theory

Osgood, re: attitude change: ppl will favor the object to which they feel greater affinity

25

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Festinger; re:attitude change; most popular theory, ppl motivated to change cognitions when become aware of discrepancy between beliefs & bx

26

Festinger & Carlsmith Study

Cognitive diss study: participants paid $1 (as opposed to $20) rated a dull task as more interesting after lying to incoming participants that task was interesting

27

Self Perception Theory

Daryl Bem; attitude change theory- contrast to cognitive diss theory & other consistency theories; proposes that ppl infer their attitudes by observing their own bx..."I did it, so I believe it"
Idea that ppl look outsides themselves when they don't know reason for their bx

28

Overjustification Hypothesis

Ppl lose interest in previously desirable activities after performing for too much justification (decreased intrinsic motivation with reward)
Ex: child who likes reading will read less over time if she is rewarded for doing so

29

Self Verification Theory

Swann, re: self concept; ppl are motivated to confirm their self concept, even if it is (-); seems most robust

30

Bx Confirmation Theory

Self concept theory: ppl motivated to confirm others' expectations of them. Not well supported by research, especially when expectations are neg

31

3 Self Concept Theories

Self Verification
Bx Confirmation
Self Enhancement

32

Self Enhancement Theory

ppl motivated to think favorably of themselves, want others to think well of them too

33

3 factors impacting persuasion toward attitude change

1. Source of the communication
2. Message itself
3. Audience

34

For relatively unimportant matters, source of persuasion is most influential when they are ___, ___, and ___

Likable
similar to the recipient of info
Attractive

35

For deeply felt convictions, source of persuasion is most influential when deemed ____, which involves ___ and ___

credible
trustworthiness (person has little to gain)
expertise

36

For fear tactics to work in persuasion, they must ___, ____, ____

engender a lot of fear
be believable
provide specific instructions for avoiding the danger

37

Primacy Effect
Hint: Long gap---> speak first

When there is a long gap between when a message is presented & action, the speaker who speaks 1st will be remembered best.
Ex: Voting in an election following a debate or speeches

38

Recency Effect
Hint: Short gap---> speak last

Where there is a small gap between when a message is presented and action, audience will remember speaker who went last

39

Reactance Theory

Ppl will not respond to persuasion if they believe their freedom is threatened; explains why coercion is mostly ineffective for attitude change

40

Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion

2 ways in which ppl are persuaded:
Peripheral Route: Focuses on aspects of message that are not central to the message, for example attractiveness of the speaker
Central Route: Focus on relevant information & elaborates on message's arguments; requires motivation to think deeply about ideas

41

Inoculation (within persuasion)
Hint: similar to mech of vaccines

Technique to increase resistance to persuasion. Person practices refuting mild arguments against a belief, which increases ability to refute stronger arguments against the belief

42

3 basic types of conflict

Approach-approach (choosing b/t 2 favorable choices)
Approach-Avoidance (choosing to do something w/both desirable & undesirable results- ex. having a child)
Avoidance-Avoidance (choosing b/t 2 undesirable choices)

43

Sources of Prejudice

Learned prejudice
Cognitive processes- ingroup favoritism & outgroup negativity; outgroup homogeneity effect ("they all look alike to me")
Personality traits- high authoritarianism
Competition for limited resources- possibly explains why lower SES whites are more prejudice than higher SES whites
Displaced aggression

44

Sherif's Robber's Cave study

group of 11-12 year old boys at summer camp. 1st created strong ingroup/outgroup identification to create rivalry, then demonstrated how cooperation on shared difficult/rewarding tasks could eliminate prejudice

45

Superordinate goals

Deemed more important than individual goals, can reduce prejudice *Sherif Robber's Cave study

46

3 Main Theories of Emotion

James-Lange
Cannon-Bard
Schacter's 2 Factor Theory

47

James-Lange Theory of Emotion

Emotions result of perceiving bodily reactions or resp
My heart is racing---I must be afraid
*not well supported by research b/c body cannot perceive subtle diffs between emotional states i.e. fear vs. excitement

48

Cannon Bard Theory of Emotion

Emotions & bodily reactions occur at the same time as messages from environ go to diff brain areas
Bodily reactions are not necessary for feeling

49

Schacter's 2 Factor Theory of Emotion

Emotion result of info from 2 systems:
Internal (hypothalamus & limbic system)
External (situational context)
Person experiences arousal then looks to environ for cues to explain
*Heart pounding on rollercoaster-excitement
*Heart pounding at EPPP- anxiety

50

Schacter & Singer's Epinephrine Studies

Participants who were not told they were given epinephrine looked to environ cues to interp phys arousal. when w/happy confederate, intep happy emotions. when w/depress confed, interp sadness

51

Social Comparison Theory

When no objective standard exists, ppl compare themselves to others in order to eval their own bx & abilities
Can be "upward" or downward comparisons

52

Significant Factors in Interpersonal Attraction

Physical Attractiveness-Matching Hypothesis
Proximity-Prox promotes attraction over time
Similarity
Reciprocity Hypothesis- like those who like us

53

Social Exchange Theory

attraction is impacted by costs and benefits of being in a relationship- when costs outweigh rewards, attraction declines

54

Schacter study on arousal & attraction
*Hint: misery loves miserable company

ppl who believed they were about to receive a painful shock affiliated more than ppl who thought they were receiving a nonpainful shock

55

Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis

Dollard; Proposed that aggression is always due to frustration & frustration always leads to some kind of aggression

56

Sherif study of conformity

Studied the autokinetic effect (tendency to exp stationary light as moving in a dark room). Ind participant's changed judgment to conform to group

57

Asch study of conformity

1/3 of subjects chose obviously incorrect response to a simple task when 6 confederates chose incorrectly before them

58

Conformity has been shown to peak in group with __ ppl that were unanimous

7

59

3 Factors affecting Conformity

1. Normative social influence- peer group more powerful than knowledge
2. Informational social influence-conform based on assump that others have more info (i.e. brad followed craig rec about a bike)
3. Reference groups- go w/judgment of ppl we like & admire

60

The likelihood of a minority opinion influencing a group is enhanced when:

person persists in voicing their opinion, is logically coherent, firm yet flexible

61

Milgram Studies of social influence

Almost 65% of participants obeyed commands of experimenter and administered most severe level of shock to confederates

62

Key Factors in Obedience

Power of the authority figure
Placement of the responsibility/liability
Gradualism

63

Foot in the door technique

compliance with initial request increases likelihood of subsequent compliance

64

3 Types of Group Tasks

Additive
Disjunctive
Conjunctive

65

Additive Tasks

In group work, Individual contributions come together to produce a combined effect

66

Disjunctive Tasks

Outcome affected by performance of most effective group member

67

Conjunctive Tasks

Outcome limited by perf of least effective group member

68

Stanford Prison Study

Zimbardo; well adjusted students assigned as guard or inmate, had to stop study by day 6 due to guards taking on abusive role and prisoners becoming depressed
*Deindividuation

69

Deindividuation in groups

Induced by feelings of ANONYMITY (key factor); process of suspending personal identity and adopting that of the group, involves decreased self awareness/regulation

70

Barnum Effect

Find personal meaning in a statement that could be applied to anyone

71

Lenore Walker's cycle of DV

3 stages:
Tension building
Acute Battering Incident
Loving Contrition
*stability result of balance btwn costs of abuse & benefits of the relationship