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Flashcards in Developmental Psych Deck (126):
1

What is the synchrony effect?

May & Hasher: The benefit of matching tasks with preferred time of day. Varies with age. Young children & older adults work best in the morning. Age 12 through young adults work best in the evening. Attentional regulation is most impacted by time of day

2

Erikson's Psychosocial Stages of Developments (8)

Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to 18 months)
Autonomy vs. Shame (Early childhood- up to 3 years)
Initiative vs. Guilt (Preschool- 3 to 5 years)
Industry vs. Inferiority (School age- 5 to 12)
Ego Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adol- 12 to 18)
Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young adult 18 to 40)
Generativity vs. Stagnation (40 to 65)
Ego Integrity vs. Despair (65+)

3

2 Kinds of Developmental Change

Qualitative
Quantitative

4

Qualitative Change

Development is discontinuous, where periods of little change alternate with periods of abrupt, rapid change.
Stage theories assert that difference between developmental stages are characterized by qualitative shifts in thinking rather than simply knowing more

5

Name 3 Stage Theorists who believe in qualitative developmental change

Piaget
Kohlberg
Erikson

6

Quantitative Change

Development is continuous, with new abilities & knowledge developing continually over time

7

Theorist Assoc w/quantitative change

Robbie Case

8

True of False: Environment affects outcomes more significantly in early years compared to later adulthood.

True

9

Bronfenbrenner Ecological Approach

5 levels of environmental influence:
Microsystem
Mesosystem
Exosystem
Macrosystem
Chronosystem

10

Microsystem

Everyday environment of person (home, school, work, neighborhood)

11

Mesosystem

Interaction between microsystems
Ex- parent teacher conference; works friends at fall party

12

Exosystem

Exosystem- Relationship between 2 or more settings, one of which does not directly contain the person
Ex- Elise doesn't come to work with me, but is work may influence how I parent

13

Macrosystem

Influence of culture, religion, economy, politics

14

Chronosystem

Addresses passage of time in a person's life. Includes expansion of family, moving, changes to larger environment like war

15

Critical period vs. Sensitive Period

Critical- specific time when something must form or occur, or it will not occur at all; most sensitive to environment or stimulation. Ex: formation of organs during embryonic stage
Sensitive-Stimulation & learning has more of an impact than at other times, but can still develop later at a less optimal time

16

Klinefelter's Syndrome

Only in men, extra X chrom- XXY; taller, less intelligent, partial breast dev, small testicles, higher voice, unable to have children

17

Turner's Syndrome

Only in women, missing X chrom- XO; normal intellect, no menstruation or ovulation

18

Down's Syndrome

Trisomy 21, 3 chrom on chromosome 21; mental retardation, broad skull, slanted eyes, reduced activity

19

PKU

Autosomal recessive d/o caused by defective gene impacting metabolism-phenylalanine not metabolized properly, can result in severe mental deficiency

20

Hemophilia

most often in males, sex linked recessive disorder, excessive bleeding, reduced clotting

21

3 stages of the prenatal period

Germinal
Embryonic
Fetal

22

Germinal period

Conception to 2 weeks
Zygote rapidly divides and implants onto uterus wall

23

Embryonic Period

2 weeks to 12 weeks
Dev of major organ systems & structures, incl nervous, respiratory, circulatory, & digestive systems, eyes, ears, limbs,
Most vulnerable to teratogens

24

Fetal period

8/12 weeks to birth
rapid growth, more complexity to organ systems
nails, lashes develop
charac by cephalocaudal dev

25

Cephalocaudal Development

Growth proceeds from top of body down

26

Organizational/activational hypothesis of sex differences

proposes hormones influence sex diffs in 2 phases
1- Early life, males & females exposed to diff levels of hormones that organize nervous system
2- Puberty- males & fem expose to diff levels of sex steroids

27

Reflexes at birth
Hint: MR Babinski Grasps

Moro
Rooting
Babinski
Grasp

28

Moro reflex

Startle response, extend legs, arms, fingers, arch back

29

Rooting

turns head, opens mouth, sucking mvmts in response to touching cheek

30

Babinski

Spreading toes, twists foot when foot stroked

31

Infant can perceive color by about ___ months of age

4

32

Infants achieve 20/20 visual acuity between __ to ___ of age

6 months to 2 years

33

Binocular vision, for depth percep, develops at ___ of age

4 or 5 months

34

By __ an infant can distinguish mother's face from others

1 month

35

What is cross modal fluency and when does it develop?

Ability to imitate facial expressions; 2 -3 weeks of age

36

When does a social smile typically emerge?

Around 2 months

37

Major Motor Milestones & Avg Age

Lifting head- 6 weeks
Rolling over- 4 months
Sitting alone- 7 months
Crawling- 9 months
Standing w/support- 9 months
Standing alone- 12 months
1st steps- 12 to 15 months
Walking up steps- 16 months

38

5 Stages of Brain Development

1. Proliferation (Embryo 2-3 weeks old)
2. Migration (Embryo 8 weeks old)
3. Differentiation
4. Myelination- postnatal
5. Synaptogenesis-postnatal

39

Proliferation

New cells develop in the neural tube

40

Migration

Immature neurons migrate to specific brain locations, join other neurons to develop brain structures

41

Differentiation

Neurons take on distinct look, axons & dendrites

42

Myelination

myelin sheath developed; continues into the 20s, enhancing processing speed, attention span, and frontal lobe fxing

43

Synaptogenesis

Synapses are formed

44

True or False: Neurons develop prenatally & postnatally

False: Babies have most of the neurons it will ever have at birth. Neurons grow in size and increase their connections with age & experience

45

Children can recover language fx up to ___ years of age due to plasticity

7 or 8 years

46

Brain has lateralized fx, such that handedness are estab by age ___

7 or 8

47

Hippocampal development is complete by ___, leading to capacity for declarative memory in addition to procedural memory

Middle Childhood

48

Primary vs. Secondary Aging

Primary- natural upper limit of human lifespan, genetically controlled, daily stressors wear out body's cells
Secondary-results from disease, disuse, neglect of body

49

Health Belief Model

perceptions of vulnerability & beliefs about illness influence health bx; health bx result of psychosoc factors, perceived susceptibility to disease, perceived benefits of preventative action vs perceived barriers

50

What is the most significant, preventable health risk

Smoking

51

Social Buffer Hypothesis

PERCEPTION of adequate social support reduces risk of emotional and health distress

52

Stages of Language Development

Crying
Cooing- 6 wks to 3 mos
Babbling 4 to 6 months
Word Comprehension- 9 to 10 mos, "no" and name
Echolalia (deliberate imitation of sound, but no meaning)
Holophrasic speech- 12 to 18 mos use single word to express complete thought
Telegraphic speech-18 to 24 mos, put 2 words together to express an idea

53

Noam Chomsky's Nativist view

Innate Language Acquisition Device- infants need minimal exposure to adult language to develop speech

54

Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

Speakers of different languages think or process differently according to the structure of their home language

55

Deep dyslexia

mistakenly reads a given word as one with similar meaning i.e. substitutes "coat" for "jacket"

56

Surface dyslexia

Person does not recognize whole words, so must sound them out i.e. reads "come" like "home" or dome

57

phonological dyslexia

inability to read non-words, but may read real words without difficulty

58

Neglect (in dyslexia)

misreads part of word

59

Epigenesis

belief that dev occurs in a series of stages, built on successful mastery of previous stage

60

3 Principle of Piaget's Theory

Organization
Adaptation
Equilibration

61

Organization (according to Piaget)

Use mental representations that include schemata (organized patterns of bx that ppl use as a guide). As we age, babies can integrate independent schemas into one

62

Adaptation (acc to Piaget)

Changes to schemata for survival. Occurs through 2 processes: assimilation & accommodation

63

Assimilation (part of Adaptation in Piaget's theory)

Incorporate new experience into existing schema
Ex- Call an eagle a "bird" initially. Or call an airplane a bird

64

Accomodation (part of adaptation in piaget's theory)

Modify existing schema to accommodate for new information
Ex- Creation of new schema for airplane to differentiate from "bird"

65

Equilibration (acc to piaget)

Innate need for balance, determines extent to which child will use accommodation to organize exp. If cannot understand new situation w/ current schema, child will move toward accommodation, which restores balance

66

Piaget's 4 Stages of Development & Time Frames

Sensorimotor - Birth to 2 years
Preoperational- 2 to 7 years
Concrete Operational- 7 to 11 years
Formal Operational- 11 yrs thru adol

67

2 Major Accomplishments of Sensorimotor stage

Object Permanence- after 3 to 4 months
Symbolic Representation-coincides w/dev of lang

68

Features of Preoperational stage
Hint; CIA is on a IEP

Centration-can only focus on one aspect of a problem at a time; ex- 2 rows of objects, if one is longer than other child will believe it has more objects
Irreversibility-cannot mentally undo something; ball of playdo rolled to cylinder. child cannot see as a ball anymore
Animism
Intuitive
Egocentrism
Phenomenalistic Causality

69

During concrete op stage, kids develop ____ & ____

-Operational thought:more logic, attend to multiple pieces of info at once , follow rules
-Conservation: Even if shape & form changes, objects still conserve other characteristics (understand same amt of liquid even if poured into diff glass)

70

During Formal op stage, adolescents develop ___

Metacognition

71

Constructivism

Associated w/piaget
Person develops new knowledge based on previous learning and through interaction with objects/environ; student emphasized over teacher

72

True or False: Piaget considered peers as more influential over cognitive dev than parents

True, because parents may be too intellectually advanced

73

Vgotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development

-Result of social interaction, where cognitive fxs are internalized over time as a result of relationships
-Defined the "Zone of Proximal Development" (instruction targeted just above child's current dev level)
-Incorp concepts of scaffolding & reciprocal teaching

74

Information Processing Theory of Cog Development

Focuses on quantitative changes over the lifespan, where skills develop gradually and continually. Dev result of larger fund of info, better skills to discern isomorphs, cog flexibility, & capacity to self monitor

75

Personal Fable & Imaginary Audience are assoc w/ what theorist?

Elkind

76

Crystallized Intelligence

Overlearned skills & concepts, primarily verbal, stays intact over aging

77

Best WAIS subtests for crystallized intelligence

Vocab, Info, Comprehension

78

Fluid Intelligence

Capacity for prob solving in novel situations, declines in 30s/40s

79

Classic Aging Pattern

Decline in performance skills w/verbal skills remaining intact

80

2 components of short term memory

Primary Memory-passive holding of small amounts of info, remains intact in older adults (digit span)
Working Memory- briefly holds & manipulates info (digits backward), declines in older adulthood

81

Episodic memory/impact of age

Most decline w/age, memory for specific situations like what you had for breakfast

82

Semantic memory/impact of aging

Memory of facts, general knowledge, stays intact with age

83

Possible explanations for decline in memory with age

atrophy of hippocampus, decreased activity of acetylcholine, serotonin, toxic effects of endogenous amino acids

84

Piaget's Theory of Moral Development

2 stages of moral reasoning: Morality of Constraint (age 5 to 10) characterized by heteronomous morality (unchangeable standard of right & wrong) & Morality of Cooperation (age 10 and up) charac by autonomous morality (more flexible, can consider intent behind action)

85

3 General Stages Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Reasoning

Preconventional (age 4 to 10)
Conventional (10 to 13)
Postconventional (13 and up)

86

Preconventional Morality acc to Kohlberg

Age 4 to 10
Stage 1- Punishment Obedience Orientation: child focuses on avoiding punishment
Stage 2- Instrumental Hedonism- obey rules w/hope of reward
*Obedience out of self interest

87

Conventional Morality acc to kohlberg

10 to 13 years
Conform to rules for approval from others
Stage 3- Good Boy Good Girl Orientation-concerned w/approval through obedience
Stage 4- Law & Order orientation- focus on maintaining social order

88

Postconventional Morality acc to Kohlberg

13 and up, or maybe never
Decisions based on what is right, fair, recognition of conflicts btwn morality & socially accepted standards
Stage 5-Morality of contract, Ind Rights, & Democratically accepted Laws
Stage 6- Morality of Individual Principles of Conscience

89

Carol Gilligan's 2 approaches to Moral Reasoning

1. Justice Perspective: emphasis on fairness (preferred by males)
2. Caring Perspective: model for women, incorp women's tendency to think about responsibilities to specific ppl; suggested 3 level model for women's morality

90

Freud's Theory of Psychosoc Development

Based on libido theory
Oral (birth to 12 months)
Anal (1 to 3 years)
Phallic (3 to 5 years)
Latency (5/6 to adol)
Genital (adol to adulthood)

91

Margaret Mahler's Theory of psychosoc Development (6 stages)

Focuses on processes of separation (discrete physical entity) & individuation (psychological independence)
1. Normal Infantile Autism-1st month; proposed infant not aware of world, not supported by research
2. Symbiosis- 2 to 4 months, infant believes she &mother are one
3. Differentiation- 5 to 10 months, able to distinguish between self & others *stranger anxiety
4. Practicing- 10 to 16 months, able to move away from mother thru motor skills, *separation anxiety
5. Rapprochement- 16 to 24 months, increased need to share new skills w/mother
6. Object constancy- 2 to 3 yrs, can maintain image of mother when not together

92

Strengths assoc w/Erikson's model

Trust vs. Mistrust ----Hope
Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt----Will
Initiative vs. Guilt------Purpose
Industry vs. Inferiority------Competence
Identity vs. Role Confusion----Fidelity
Intimacy vs. Isolation------Love
Generativity vs. Stagnation-----Care
Integrity vs. Despair------Wisdom

93

2 Attachment Researchers w/Primates

Lorenz
Harlow

94

2 Attachment Researchers w/Human Infants

Bolby
Ainsworth

95

Konrad Lorenz's Research

Primate attachment is instinctual; studied critical periods of attachment-imprinting; found that goslings who imprinted on him within 12 to 17 hours after birth still followed him when other geese available

96

Harry Harlow's Research

Infant monkeys preferred terry cloth surrogate mothers over wire surrogates, even if fed by wire mother; highlighted contact comfort (imp of pleasurable tactile sensations as contributor to attachment)

97

Monkeys placed in isolation during first few months of life exhibited _____ and ____ bxs

autistic social & sexual bxs

98

John Bowlby's Theory

Attachment- newborns bio equipped with bxs that elicit instinctive nurturing resp from caretaker

99

3 Stages of maternal deprivation acc to Bowlby

Protest
Despair
Detachment
*occurs under 2 yrs old after 3+ months of separation

100

Anaclytic depression

Rene Spitz coined term for weepiness, withdrawal, insomnia, decline in health in babies betw 6 to 8 months old when deprived of maternal attention

101

Ainsworth Attachment Styles (3) + Main & Solomon 4th style

By 1 year of age, attachment style evident
1. Secure Attachment-65%
2. Avoidant attachment-20% aloof/distant or overstimulating parenting
3. Ambivalent- 10%inconsistent & insensitive parenting
4. Disorganized-Disoriented-no clear strategy in dealing w/mother; charac by fear & confusion toward mother; assoc w/abusive parenting

102

Theorist assoc w/parenting styles

Baumrind

103

3 major patterns in parenting acc to Baumrind

1. Authoritarian
2.Permissive
3.Authoritative

104

Authoritarian parents...

demanding, lack warmth, controlling, punishing; leads to moody, withdrawn, aggressive children

105

Permissive parents...

Either indifferent (little monitoring, generally detached) or indulgent (loving yet few limits or demands); leads to impulsive children, non compliant

106

Authoritative parents...

emotionally avail, warm, fair, firm, structure. leads to confident, competent children

107

Cross cultural research of parenting style indicates that ____ versus ____ is the key variable that affects outcomes for children

warmth; rejection

108

Stages of Gender Role Development

1. Gender Roles- dev thruout life
2. Gender Identity- objective self (recog self in mirror) by 18 mos, begins id consolidation; achieved by age 3
3. Gender Constancy-realization that gender does not change, attained by 5 or 6

109

4 major theories of gender role development

Social Learning
Cog Developmental
Gender Schema*most accepted- combines social learning & cognition
Psychoanalytic-Oedipus complex, biology is destiny

110

4 stages of social play

1. Solitary
2. Parallel
3. Associative
4. Cooperative

111

4 Levels of Cognitive Play

1. Repetitive play-rolling ball
2. Constructive play- building w/blocks
3. Imaginative play
4. Formal games with rules

112

For adolescents, ____ was most important factor accounting for delinquent bx

relationship w/parents

113

Patterson's Coercion Model of Aggression

3 steps lead to delinquency:
1.Cycle of child modeling parent aggressive bx, & parents respond w/increasing aggressive punishment
2.Conduct probs lead to academic failure & peer rejection
3. Child becomes depressed, more likely to join deviant peer group

114

true or false: Bullies typically suffer from insecurity & low self esteem

False

115

2 conditions that make a child most vulnerable to bullying

Crying or submissiveness
Peer rejection

116

Rosenthal effect

Teachers' expectations have impact on students' academic performance. High expectations lead to better performance

117

Adolescent Identity Formulation: James Marcia

4 possible states:
Identity Achievement-resolved crisis, made a commitment
Foreclosure- absence of crisis (commit to goal w/o exploring options), made a commitment
Moratorium- in the midst of crisis, not yet resolved but most likely will be
Identity Diffusion- lacking direction, unmotivated; no crisis or commitment

118

4 Stages of Grieving

1. Numbness
2. Yearning- distress, guilt, anger
3. Disorganization & despair- apathy, loss of meaning
4. Resolution/reorganization- gradual acceptance of loss, building new identity

119

Elizabeth Kubler Ross: 5 stages of confronting one's own death
*DABDA

1. Denial or disbelief
2. Anger
3. Bargaining
4. Depression
5. Acceptance

120

Thomas & Chess 3 Categories of Temperament

1. Easy
2. Difficult
3. Slow to Warm up
*Importance of goodness of fit between parenting style & temperament

121

Social referencing

By 1 year of age infants use cues from caretaker/trusted others to deal w/affective uncertainty

122

Underextension vs. Overextension

Early speech (around 18 mos of age) characterized by both
Under-use a word too narrowly
Over-use a word too broadlyt

123

In adopted youth, IQ is always more strongly correlated with ___ parents

biological

124

Features of Speech

Semantics-meaning
Syntax-grammatical order
Phonemic-smallest units of sound
Acoustic-pitch tone volume

125

Successful aging is most correlated with

level of activity

126

Impact of Pos & Neg life events on satisfaction & well being

Have short term impact (approx. 3 mos) but don't impact long term satisfaction