Cognition Flashcards Preview

AP Psych > Cognition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cognition Deck (50):
1

Information processing model

Sensory->short term->long term

2

Working memory

Short term memory

3

Iconic memory

Split-second perfect photo of scene

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Echoic memory

(3-4sec) memory of sound

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Selective attention

Encode what is important (cocktail party effect)

6

Short term memory storage

7 +- 2 items

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Chunking

Grouping items (mnemonic devices

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Episodic memory

Events stored sequentially (last time I went to movies)

9

Semantic memory

General knowledge, categories

10

Procedural memory

Skills

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Explicit

Conscious memories we tried to remember

12

Implicit

Nondeclarative, unintentional, how to clean floor

13

Levels of processing model

Deep (elaboratively) and shallow (maintenance) processing

14

Recognition

Multiple choice test

15

Recall

Essay (retrieve with external cue)

16

Primacy effect

More likely to remember 1st part

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Recency effect

Recall end

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Serial positioning effect

Forget the middle part

19

Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

Temporary inability to remember something

20

Flashbulb memories

Context e.g. 9/11 remember where you were

21

Mood-congruent theory

Matching mood as the memory = greater recall

22

State-dependent theory

Different recall in states of consciousness (before sleep, have to write down)

23

Constructive memory

Constructed memory, false details

24

Relearning effect

Easier to relearn something

25

Retroactive interference

New info blocks old

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Proactive interference

Old info blocks new

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Anterograde amnesia

Can't store new memories

28

Long-term potentiation

Repeat firings -> strengthen memory

29

Phenomes

Smallest unit of sound

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Morphemes

Smallest unit of meaningful sound

31

Babbling stage

4 months, phenomes

32

One-word stage

Holophrastic, 1 year

33

Two-word stage

18 months, telegraphic

34

Overgeneralization/Overregulation

Excessively applying grammar rules

35

Nativist theory of language acquisition

Noam Chomsky-inborn ability to develop language

36

Critical period

Period where child has to be exposed to language to learn

37

Linguistic relativity hypothesis

Language influence thinking, Benjamin Whorf

38

Prototypes

Typical example of concept

39

Algorithms

Try everything possible solution, guarantee answer

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Heuristics

rule of thumb, not always true

41

Availability heuristic

Judge situation based on similar ones that come to mind

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Representative heuristic

Judge situation on prototypes

43

Belief bias

Tend not to change belief

44

Belief perseverence

Not change belief even if contratdicted

45

Rigidity

Mental set, tend to fall in established patterns

46

Functional fixedness

Inability to see new use for ojbect

47

Confirmation bias

Look for evidence that supports beliefs

48

Framing

How problem is presented

49

Convergent thinking

Point to 1 solution

50

Divergent thinking

Multiple answers, associated with creativity