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AP Psych > Learning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Learning Deck (31):
1

Classical conditioning

US pair with CS to produce UR

2

Extinction

Unlearning behavior

3

Spontaneous recovery

Behavior briefly reappears

4

Generalization

Respond to similar stimulus

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Discriminate

Distinction between various stimuli

6

Second/higher-order conditioning

Pair CS with new CS to produce same UR

7

Law of effect

Pleasant consequence, stimulus/response connection goes up, unpleasant goes down

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Instrumental learning

Consequence instrumental in shaping future behavior

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Positive reinforcement

Increase behavior by adding something good

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Negative reinforcement

Increase behavior by taking away something bad

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Escape learning

Terminate aversive stimulus

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Avoidance learning

Avoid unpleasant stimulus

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Positive punishment

Decrease behavior by adding something bad

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Negative punishment

Decrease behavior by taking away something good

15

Shaping

Reinforcing steps to desired behavior

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Chaining

Successive responses to get an award

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Primary reinforces

Themselves rewarding (food)

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Secondary reinforcers

Learned value ($)

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Generalized reinforcer

Can be used for anything ($)

20

Token economy

Trade tokens for other reinforcers

21

Premack Principle

2 activities, the one preferred is used to reinforce one not preferred

22

Fixed-ratio schedule

Set # of responses

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Variable-ratio schedule

# of responses varies, averages to a certain #

24

Fixed-interval schedule

Set time elaspes

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Variable-interval schedule

Time elapsed varies

26

Contiguity model of CC

Continuous pairings of CS and US

27

Contingency model

Intermixed w/ times of just CS or just US; association not as strong

28

Observational learning

Albert Bandura

29

Latent learning

Learning that isn't totally evident

30

Abstract learning

Understanding concepts

31

Insight learning

Wolfgang Kohler, sudden insight on solving problems