Sensation/Perception Flashcards Preview

AP Psych > Sensation/Perception > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sensation/Perception Deck (54):
1

Sensation

Process our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus

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Perception

Organizing and interpreting sensory information

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Bottom-up processing

analysis beginning w/ sensory receptors, up to brain's integration of sensory info

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Top-down processing

information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, construct perceptions from experience and expectations

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Psychophysics

Study of relationships between physical characteristics of stimuli and psychological experience of them

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Absolute threshold

Minimum stimulation needed to detect stimulus 50%

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Signal detection theory

Predict how/when we detect faint stimulus amid background stimulation (assume no absolute threshold)

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Subliminal

Below absolute threshold

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Priming

Activation of certain associations, predispositions

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Difference threshold

Minimum difference between stimuli to be perceived 50% of the time

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Weber's law

Different stimuli perceived different by constant minimum percentage

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Sensory adaptation

Diminished sensation from constant stimulation

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Transduction

Conversion of energy from one form to another

14

Pupil

Adjustable opening in center of eye

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Iris

Ring of muscle tissue around colored part of eye, controls size of pupil opening

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Lens

Behind pupil, focus images on retina

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Retina

light-sensitive inner surface of eye, w/ receptor rods/cones

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Accommodation

Process lens changes shape to focus

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Fovea

point of central focus

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Blind spot

Where optic nerve leaves eye

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Rods

Black/white/Gray

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Cones

Center of retina, fine detail, color

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Optic nerve

Carries neural impulses from the eye to brain

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Feature detectors

Nerve cells for specific features like shape, angle, etc.

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Parallel processing

Processing many aspects simultaneously

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Young-Helmholtz theory

Retina three cones-red, green, blue

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Opponent-process theory

Opposing retinal processes enable color vision (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black)

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Audition

Sense or act of hearing

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Middle ear

Chamber between eardrum and cochlea w/ hammer, anvil, stirrup

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Cochlea

coiled, bony fluid-filled tube in inner ear

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Inner ear

Cochlea, semicircular canals, vestibular sacs

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Place Theory

Pitch influence where cochlea is stimulated

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Frequency theory

Rate of nerve impulses matches frequency of tone

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Conduction hearing loss

Caused by damage to mechanical system

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Sensorineural hearing loss

Damage to cochlea's receptor cells or auditory nerves

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Cochlear implant

Converts sound to electrical signals

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Kinesthesis

Sensing position and movement of body parts

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Vestibular sense

Body movement and position and balance

39

Gate-control theory

Large-block
Small-open

40

Basic tastes

Sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami

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Sensory interaction

One sense influence another (smell, taste)

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Gestalt

Emphasize integration of pieces to whole

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Figure-ground

Organization of figures and surroundings

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Grouping

Organize stimuli into groups

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Depth perception

3-D

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Binocular cues

depth cues, retinal disparity

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Retinal disparity

Two images from two eyes. Greater difference, closer it is

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Monocular cues

Depth cues; interposition, linear perspective

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Phi phenomenon

Illusion of movement

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Perceptual constancy

Perceiving objects as unchanging even as light/shape change

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Color constancy

consistent color

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Perceptual adaptation

Ability to adjust

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Perceptual set

mental predisposition to perceive something

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Immanuel Kant

Said knowledge comes from inborn organization tools