common small parts pathology test part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in common small parts pathology test part 2 Deck (55)
1

bilateral process which results in small, echogenic kidneys with noticeable loss of parenchymal thickness. Cortical thickness = minimum measurment of 1cm. May be difficult to distinguish from surrounding perinephric fat and retroperitoneal structures

chronic medical renal disease AKA chronic renal failure

2

benign, solitary renal tumor composed of blood vessels smooth muscle and fat cells

hypoechoic mass found in the renal cortex and can have posterior acoustic enhancement

no color doppler within tumor

angiomyolipoma

3

angiomyolipoma

80% in rt kidney and 80% in women

angio-blood vessels
myo-smooth muscle
lipoma-fat cells





4

multiple cysts of varying size located in the renal cortex and medulla. Bilateral, and can cause massively enlarged, asymmetrical kidneys. Often assocaited with cysts in the liver, spleen, pancreas and several small parts.

autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

5

solid parenchymal mass, isoechoic or hypoechoic, disrupt the renal cortex, peripheral vascularity (basket sign)

renal carcinoma

IVC and renal veins should be imaged for evidence of tumor extension

6

developmental anomaly of distal collecting ducts, causing urinary stasis with stone formation, usually asymptomatic and not found until young adulthood. Enlarged echogenic medullary (women in 20's with no symptoms)

medullary sponge kidney

7

diffuse calcuim deposits with the medulla, often seen in conjunction with MSK. Other primary causes are hyperparathyroidism, chronicnephritis, sickle cell (old man)

nephrocalcinosis

8

most common medical renal disease to cause acute renal failure. Would be differential diagnosis. Thinned cortex with enlarged, echogenic globs of medullary tissue (child who is dehydrated and has a fever)

acute tubular necrosis

9

outpouchings of the ladder wall, more commonly seen in older men w/ bladder outlet obstruction, neurogenic bladder disease or paraplegics

diverticulum

10

irregular, echogenic mass that projects into the lumen of the bladder or as a focal thickening of the wall. Will have blood flow

transitional cell carcinoma (95% of bladder tumors)

11

echogenic foci along bladder wall w/ posterior shadowing

bladder stones

12

echogenic parenchyma with loss of distinct medurllary

nephritis

13

necrosis of the glomerulus, cause is streptococcal bacteria

glomerulonephritis

14

network of capillaries which filters blood into the renal tubule

glomerulus

15

an infection of the calyces and renal pelvis, causes UTI, reflux, obstruction, diabetes. Possible to have focal pyelonephritis which appears as a focal echogenic area within the kidney characterized by lack of vascularity with the infected area.

pyelonephritis

16

most common kidney infection

pyelonephritis

17

if you put color on the kidney and part of it has color and part is hypoechoic

focal nephritis

18

most common ectopic kidney

pelvic kidney

19

bilateral fusion anomaly of the lower poles of the kidney which occurs during fetal development. Kidneys are closer to the spine and the inferior poles lie more medial.

horseshoe kidney

20

increased deposits of fat in renal sinus, renal cortex appears thinned. Appearance resembles chronic renal insufficiency disease.

sinus lipomatosis

21

enlarged kidneys with tiny cysts in the medullary and cortical regions, associated with billiary ectasia and hepatic fibrosis. Usually bilateral

autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease

22

intact cortical rim, metaastatic from lymphoma

lymphoma

23

smooth, on stalk, do not shadow, do not move, most common tumor of gallbladder

polyps

24

GB-hyperplastic wall changes more echogenic than polyps, do not move, have ring down or comet tail artifact

adenomhyomatosis

25

GB-echogenic foci, multiple or single, shadowing, moveable

gallstones

26

GB packed with stones, no visible bile within the gallbladder lumen, very distinct posterior shadowing behind a thick, echogenic rim

Wall Echo Shadow (WES)

27

the whole wall of the gallbladder in incristed with calcium. Similar patter of distinct posterior shadowing in the area of the GB yet often w/o the heavy irregular echogenic anterior rim

porcelain gallbladder

28

mildly echogenic bile, can float, move as a ball, contain highly echigenic tiny foci can be seen along the gallstones

sludge

29

positive murphys sign, thickened wall with sonolucent area between the walls

acute cholecystitis

30

transient RUQ pain with no positive murphys sign more common than acute, is the result of multiple episodes of acute and with fibrosis developing in the wall

chronic cholecystitis

31

occurs before intrahepatic blockage of the distal common bile duct and eventual dilated intrahepatic ducts, blockage at the portahepatis (common hepatic duct) will demonstrate a normal common bile duct with intrahepatic ductal dilatation, which is characterized by the appearance of too many tubes or double barrel sign of dilated ducts alongside the portal veins

dilated common duct extrahepatic

always check for the source and location of the ductal obstruction

32

blood filled channel within the walls of the aorta

occurs primarily in the thoracic aorta

marfans stretching disorder of all arterial vessels

dissecting aneursyms

33

large, 5010cm, connected to aorta by mouth or channel, usually filled with thrombus or clot

saccular aneursyms

34

most common general widening of aorta, distal, atherosclerosis

fusiform aneursyms

35

pulsatile hematoma

results from interventional procedures

punctured artery fails to seal off

Ultrasound be used to seal off the leak with compression

pseudo aneursyms

36

occurs from the bell clapper deformity where the tunica vaginalis completely surrounds the testis, epidiymis and distal spermatic cord lacking the bare area along the posterior scrotal wall

torsion

37

what side do you put color on first when examining torsion

unaffected side

38

affected testis is swollen with a mildly heterogeneous echotecture however, echogenicity remains similar to unaffected side

early torsion

39

affected testis becomes hypoechic and swollen indicating testicular ischemia

venous flow is affected 1st causing occluded veins, followed by arterial obstruction

once arterial flow ceases, tissue necrosis occurs and the affected organ becomes hypoechoic in sonographic appearance

late torsion

40

used to amplify the color signal, to optimize setting increase until noise is present and then slowly decrease until noise disappears

color gain

41

the setting that controls the sensitivity of the system to display slow flow. This adjustment will determine flow, direction, and quality.

scale 9pulse repetition frequency)

42

like and elastic eraser. Often automatically adjusted when changing the scale (PRF) turn up to reduce ghosting artifact, turn down to enhance flow sensitivity

wall filter

43

size will determine the line density. When large or placed deep in the image, more scan lines are needed and more time is required to complete each image

color box

44

abnormal dilatation of the veins of the pampiniform plexus in the spermatic cord

varicocele

45

caused by incompetent valves within the spermatic vein

more common on the left due to the left spermatic vein empting into the left renal vein

primary varicocele

46

more common in men over 40

result of renal hydronephrosis, abdominal mass or liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension

secondary varicoceles

47

a collection of serous fluid and is the most common cause of painless scrotal swelling

hydrocele

48

appears as anechoic fluid at lower frequency settings but may have some low level echoes at higher frequencies and higher hynamic range

infected __________ may have increased internal echoes

appearance of hydrocele

49

a bilateral codition associated with an increased risk of malignancy and infertiltiy, Calcifications are smaller than 3mm and apppear w/o shadowing. Higher incidence in men with a history of cryptorchidism (undescended testis). Must have more than 5 on a single image

microlithiasis

50

most common kind of testicular carcinoma

95% are germ cell, most often seminoma

51

occurs most frequently between ages 20-35

patients present with a painless, palpable testicular lump

testicular carcinomas

52

hypoechoic, homogenous with smooth borders (testis)

seminomas

53

most common cause of acute scrotal pain in adults

epididymitis

54

common cause of epididymitis

urinary tract infection or STD

55

symtoms of epididymitis

increasing pain over several days with fever an doften a urethral discharge

infection will spread to the testis in about 1/3 of cases which if orchitits

hyperemia presenting as increased color doppler within the testis