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1. Three layers of the breast

mammary layer, retromammary layer, subcutaneous layer


2. Functional portion of the breast consists of how many lobes

15 - 20


3. What is the fibrosis skeletal muscle that maintains the breast

Coopers Ligament


4. As a women ages glandular breast tissue is replaced with what

Fat (JL PG 553)


5. Describe cooper ligaments what it looks like under US

Echogenic (JL p 552)


6. Describe songoragphic of the retromamorary layer

thin and consist of fat surrounded by connective tissue septa

the fatty tissue appears hypoechoic and the ducts, glands, and supporting ligaments appear echogenic

(MW pg. 550)


7. What are the most important signs that a lesion is cystic

smooth walls, anechoic, posterior enhancement good through transmission

(MW breast slide #6)


8. If a patient has clinically findings of lumpy bumpy painful breasts with their monthly cycles

Fibrocystic condition (EG pg 574)


9. What are the characteristics of a papilloma

-Bloody discharge from single duct
-Tiny papilloma may not be detected
-May cause dilatation of a single duct
-arise from lining of breast ducts, retroareolar area most common
-Intracystic papillomas- soft tissue mass growing into lumen of cystic lesion
-May cause skin dimpling and retraction

(MW breast slide #11)


10. What is the most common solid benign tumor of the breast



11. What is the sonographic characteristics of fibroadenoma?

Smooth, rounded margins
low level homogeneous internal echoes
posterior enhancement
typically hypoechoic but can be hyperechoic because of the fat within the breast
(JL pg 5765)


12. Lymphatic drainage usually flows to what lymph nodes

Axillary (JL pg 554)


13. Most common malignant neoplasm Breast

Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (JL pg 578)


14. Describe findings of the breast carcinoma

attenuation of sound
irregular borders
inhomogenous low level internal echo patterns with calcification


15. Skin rippling what does that suggest

retraction of the tissue secondary to tumor infiltration


17. Primary purpose of breast screening

provides early detection of breast carcinoma


18. Know the clock face

Mid portion of rt medial and Lt lateral breast is annotated 3:00


16. Most common of clinical signs of breast cancer is what

Palpable lump


19. Normal extension of breast tissue into the axillary region

tail of spence


20. According of ACS should began mamo screening at what age



21. Which one of the following of the arteries responsible to supply more then half of the breast

anterior perforating branches of the internal mammary gland (JL pg 553) (internal mammary supplies have the blood supply to the breast)


22. A condition when a male has breast?

gynecomastia (MW pg 556 and google)


23. Appearance of breast cancer under US

Irregular margins and taller than wide


24. US is often a benefit for procedures except what

large core needle biopsy of calcification


25. Be able to answer/ ultrasound is exam of choice if your pregnant or at an younger age and have a family history/ not a mamogram



26. Know other modalities that are used besides US for the breast and why would we use one of the other

Ultrasound of the breast is often performed as an
adjunctive imaging tool in all of the following situations

a. To assess a smooth mammographic mass as cystic or solid
b. To further evaluate a palpable breast lump in a patient with very dense breast tissue and a negative mammogram
c. To further evaluate a palpable breast lump in a patient with breast implants


27. If you see a smooth mass on a mammogram and they want correlating images on US what do you think you’re going to see

Anechoic cyst with posterior acoustic enhancement


28. What are advantages of breast US over mammography

Differentiation of cystic versus solid smooth masses

More comfortable examination for the patient

Better visualization of juxtathoracic deep tissues

Can better evaluate those hard-to-reach places, such as parasternal tissues and axilla, not well seen on mammography.


29. What is the diameter of a varicocele

> 2mm (MW pg 619)


30. What is the fibrous capsule surrounding the testicle

tunica albuginea

(MW pg 606)