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Flashcards in Coronary heart disease Deck (52):
1

What is secondary hypertension

Uncommon 5-10%
related to:
Endocrine
drugs
pregnancy
Renal failure
Sleep apnea
Renal artery sclerosis

2

Wha are there risk of of getting essential hypertension

Increasing age
black
obesity
high salt diet
lack of physical activity

3

What is an aneurysm

a focal artery dilation

4

Renal failure is more common in what race

AA

5

Hypertensive brain hemorrhage is more common in what race

Asians

6

What are sec causes of hyperlipidemia

Diabetes
sedentary lefestyle
diet
obesity
heavy alc use

7

What delivers fats from gut to liver

Chylomicrons

8

What is the leading cause of death and stroke

atherosclerosis
about 30% of all deaths

9

What is the leading cause of referral artery disease

Diabetes

10

Hypertrophy

Enlarged cells, number of cells remains the same

11

What is atrophy

Cell shrinkage or loss

12

what is the term for fatty atrophy

cachexia
fatal at 68% of normal body weight

13

Term for an increased number of cells

Hyperplasia

14

Term for the replacement of one cell type by another

metaplasia:
Smoker's airway
Cervix
Barretts esophagus

15

Term for disordered hyperplasia without maturation

Dysplasia:
Uterine cervix
bowel disease
Esophagus with Barrett's

16

What are the main causes of cell injury and death

trauma
Ischemia; inadequate circulation
toxins/radiation
Infection
Inflammation
genetic diseases
Nutritional problems
tumors

17

What cells are most prone to injury

High metabolic activity: myocytes, renal tubular, hepatocytes.
Rapidly proliferating:Testicular germ, intestinal epi, hematopoietic cells.

18

What are examples or reversible cell damage

Mild ATN; acute tubular necrosis of kidney
Toxic liver injury
Severe exercise

19

What are examples of irreversible cell death

Necrosis
Apoptosis

20

what is apoptosis

Orderly and often normal
Requires energy
no inflammation, one cell at the time
Embriology
Normal cell turnover
viral infection
Immunologically mediated; Fas or TNF signals

21

What is necrosis

Uncoordinated cell death
often happens in clusters and incites inflammation.
Early loss of: energy, ions pumps.

22

what is karyolysis

digested, pale nucleus

23

what does coagulative necrosis do

forms scar or a thin area

24

what is an example of caseous necrosis

Tuberculosis
infectious granulomas

25

When is fatty change of liver seen

aloholism
obesity
starvation
toxins

26

when is glycogen accumulation seen

lir in diabetes
glycogen storage disease
certain tumors

27

when is lipid storage seen

lipid storage disease: Fabry's, Gaucher's
atherosclerosis

28

What is lipofuscin

degraded lipid in lysosomes
disease; Gaucher's

29

What are three brown storage products

lipofuscin; degraded lipid in lysosomes
bilirubin; hemoglobin breakdown product
Hemosiderin; iron containing product

30

what are two examples of protein storage

Intracellular; Russell bodies in plasma cells
Extracellular; Amyloid

31

Term for the accumulation of calcium

Dystrophic calcification- into damaged tissue
Metastatic calcification- into normal tissue due to;
Renal failure
hyperparathyrodism
malignancy

32

Term for coal worker's lung

Anthracosis

33

term for too much extravascular fluid in tissues

Edema

34

term for too much fluid in body cavity

Effusion

35

Term for excess fluid in peritonial space in liver failure

Ascites

36

Term for excess fluid in pleural space

Pleural effusion

37

Term for excess cerebrospinal fluid

hydrocephalus

38

Terms for clots or other material that block flow

thrombi; clot in a vessel
emboli

39

Terms for low blood pressure from low cardia output or low vascular resistance

Hypotension
Shock

40

Term of fluid accumulation in lower part of body

Dependent edema

41

What are three common causes of edema

hormonal fluid retention.
Heart failure.
Inflammation.

42

Left heart failure can lead to

pulmonary edema

43

Right heart failure can lead to

blood backing up in IVC
blood pooling in liver.
Edema due to increase pressure in vasculature.

44

What are three common causes of low BP

Hypovolemic; low blood volume (bleeding/dehydration)
Cardiogenic; heart infarct/failure,arrhythmia, pulmonary emboli.
Septic shock; vasodialation and high permeability, poor cardiac pumping, increased metabolism.

45

What are the symptoms of hypovolemic and cardiogenic hypotension

pale, cool skin.
blood flows primarily to vital organs.

46

What are the symptoms of Septic shock

febrile, flushed, chills and diaphoresis.

47

term for decreased myocardial contractility (heart pumps weakly)

Systolic dysfunction

48

Term for insufficient expansion (heart does not fill with blood bn beats

Diastolic dysfunction

49

Facts of left sided heart failure

Caused by ischemic heart disease.
Hypertension
Aortic and mitral valve disease
Orthopnia/dyspnea
Myocardial disease; cardiomyopathy/myocarditis
edema of lungs.

50

Term for pulmonary edema from heart failure while lying down

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

51

What are hear failure cells

heme-filled macrophages

52

Facts of right sided heart failure

Pure-cor pulmonale; abnormal enlargement of right side of heart.
Hepatomegaly
Splenomegaly