Flashcards in Coronary heart disease Deck (52):
What is secondary hypertension
Renal artery sclerosis
Wha are there risk of of getting essential hypertension
high salt diet
lack of physical activity
What is an aneurysm
a focal artery dilation
Renal failure is more common in what race
Hypertensive brain hemorrhage is more common in what race
What are sec causes of hyperlipidemia
heavy alc use
What delivers fats from gut to liver
What is the leading cause of death and stroke
about 30% of all deaths
What is the leading cause of referral artery disease
Enlarged cells, number of cells remains the same
What is atrophy
Cell shrinkage or loss
what is the term for fatty atrophy
fatal at 68% of normal body weight
Term for an increased number of cells
Term for the replacement of one cell type by another
Term for disordered hyperplasia without maturation
Esophagus with Barrett's
What are the main causes of cell injury and death
Ischemia; inadequate circulation
What cells are most prone to injury
High metabolic activity: myocytes, renal tubular, hepatocytes.
Rapidly proliferating:Testicular germ, intestinal epi, hematopoietic cells.
What are examples or reversible cell damage
Mild ATN; acute tubular necrosis of kidney
Toxic liver injury
What are examples of irreversible cell death
what is apoptosis
Orderly and often normal
no inflammation, one cell at the time
Normal cell turnover
Immunologically mediated; Fas or TNF signals
What is necrosis
Uncoordinated cell death
often happens in clusters and incites inflammation.
Early loss of: energy, ions pumps.
what is karyolysis
digested, pale nucleus
what does coagulative necrosis do
forms scar or a thin area
what is an example of caseous necrosis
When is fatty change of liver seen
when is glycogen accumulation seen
lir in diabetes
glycogen storage disease
when is lipid storage seen
lipid storage disease: Fabry's, Gaucher's
What is lipofuscin
degraded lipid in lysosomes
What are three brown storage products
lipofuscin; degraded lipid in lysosomes
bilirubin; hemoglobin breakdown product
Hemosiderin; iron containing product
what are two examples of protein storage
Intracellular; Russell bodies in plasma cells
Term for the accumulation of calcium
Dystrophic calcification- into damaged tissue
Metastatic calcification- into normal tissue due to;
Term for coal worker's lung
term for too much extravascular fluid in tissues
term for too much fluid in body cavity
Term for excess fluid in peritonial space in liver failure
Term for excess fluid in pleural space
Term for excess cerebrospinal fluid
Terms for clots or other material that block flow
thrombi; clot in a vessel
Terms for low blood pressure from low cardia output or low vascular resistance
Term of fluid accumulation in lower part of body
What are three common causes of edema
hormonal fluid retention.
Left heart failure can lead to
Right heart failure can lead to
blood backing up in IVC
blood pooling in liver.
Edema due to increase pressure in vasculature.
What are three common causes of low BP
Hypovolemic; low blood volume (bleeding/dehydration)
Cardiogenic; heart infarct/failure,arrhythmia, pulmonary emboli.
Septic shock; vasodialation and high permeability, poor cardiac pumping, increased metabolism.
What are the symptoms of hypovolemic and cardiogenic hypotension
pale, cool skin.
blood flows primarily to vital organs.
What are the symptoms of Septic shock
febrile, flushed, chills and diaphoresis.
term for decreased myocardial contractility (heart pumps weakly)
Term for insufficient expansion (heart does not fill with blood bn beats
Facts of left sided heart failure
Caused by ischemic heart disease.
Aortic and mitral valve disease
Myocardial disease; cardiomyopathy/myocarditis
edema of lungs.
Term for pulmonary edema from heart failure while lying down
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
What are hear failure cells