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Flashcards in Autonomics Deck (66):
1

Bethanechol

increase GI motility,
but relaxes sphincters

2

Cevimeline/Evoxac

cholinergic agonist use to treat
xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome

3

Pilocarpine/Salagen

cholinergic agonist used to treat xerostomia amer radiotherapy

4

Where are the preganglionic cell bodies of the PS system

Craniosacral region

5

What neurotransmitter is used by both symp and para pre-ganglionic fibers

ACh

6

Motor neurons innervating skeletal muscle act via what type of receptors

Nicotinin

7

NE and EPI act on what kind of receptors

alpha
Beta

8

DA activates what type of receptors

D1
Alpha
Beta

9

ACh acts on what type of receptors on somatic muscles

Nicotinic

10

What are three agonists for PS system that act on the M receptors

ACh
Bethanechol
Pilocarpine

11

What are two antagonists that act on the PS system on M receptors

Atropine
Scopolamine

12

What increases when agonist acts on PSNS M receptors

Stomach acid secretion
Secretory gland secretion

13

What does Pilocarpine do

Used for glaucoma, contract irises

14

What are two classes of neuromuscular blockers

Depolarizing (non-competitive)
Non-depoparizing

15

Name of a depolarizing Neuromuscular blocker

Succinylcholine

16

Name of a non-depolarizing NM blocker

Tubocurare

17

How does a depolarizing NM blocker work

depolarizes the NM endplate; opens and keeps NIC channels such that neuron is unresponsive to another ACh challenge

18

How does a non-depolarizing NM blocker work

Competes with ACh at nicotinic receptors

19

What is the effect of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor
ie: physostigmine

It will deactivate acetylcholinesterase, allowing ACh to build and bind to nicotinic receptors and overpower Tubocurare.

20

What is the antidote for a cholinesterase inhibitor

Atropine

21

What are three examples o AChE inhibitors

Physostigmine
Donepezil
Sarin

22

What are the effects of Physostigmine

AChE inhibitor
short duration of action, used for glaucoma
Antidote for atropine

23

What are the effects of Donepezil (Aricept)

AChE inhibitor.
Extended duration of action, used to treat Alzheimer's

24

What are the effects of Sarin

Irreversible
long duration of action
nerve gas

25

What does botulism toxin do

Prevents release of ACh

26

What are two cholinergic agents (agonists) used in dentistry

Cevimeline (Evoxac); Sjogren's xerostomia
Pilocarpine (Salagen); Radiotherapy xerostomia

27

Epi binds more readily to what receptors

Alpha 1
Alpha 2
Beta 2

28

Epi and NE bind equally to what receptor

beta 1

29

What are two alpha 1 agonists

Epi
Phenylephrine

30

What are the effects of alpha 1 agonists

radial muscle of iris; CONTRACT
genitourinary and GI sphincters; CONTRACT
VASCULATURE; CONSTRICT

31

What is an example of an alpha I blocker

Prazosin; used to treat hypertension

32

What are three alpha two agonists

Epi>NE
Clonidine
Guanfacine

33

What are the effects of alpha 2 agonists

VASCULATURE; CONSTRICT
NE terminals; decrease NE release
brainstem; decrease NE release
Blood pressure; decrease

34

What are two Beta 1 agonists

Epi=NE
Isoproterenol

35

What is affected by beta 1 receptors

Heart rate

36

What is the effect of Beta 1 agonists on the heart

Increase in:
HR
Automaticity
Conduction,
Velocity
Contractility

37

If it end in olol is most likely a

beta blocker

38

What is one example of a beta 1 and beta 2 antagonist (beta blocker)

Propranolol

39

What are four examples of beta 2 agoinists

EPI>NE
Isoproterenol
Albuterol
Terbutaline

40

What are the effects of Beta 2 agonists on:
Ciliary muscle
Vascular
Lungs (tracheal and smooth muscle)
Urinary bladder and uterine wall

Ciliary muscle; relaxation for far vision
Vascular; relaxation, vasodilate
Lungs (tracheal and smooth muscle); relaxation
Urinary bladder and uterine wall; relaxation

41

Where are beta 3 located and what affinity does it have

adipose tissue
NE>EPI

42

The iris radial muscle contracts (dilates eye) as an effect of _____ on what receptor

Sympathetic activity on alpha 1 receptors

43

The iris circular muscle contracts (contracted pupil) as an effect of _____ on what receptor

Parasympathetic activity on Muscarinic receptors

44

Parasympathetics act on the heart via ___ receptors

muscarinic

45

Sympathetics act on skeletal muscle vessels via ____receptors, making them ______

Beta 2
Relax

46

Sympathetics act on skin, splanchnic vessels via ____receptors, making them ______

Alpha
Contract

47

Sympathetics act on bronchiolar smooth muscle via ____receptors, making them ______

Beta 2
relax

48

Sympathetics act on walls of GI tract via ____receptors, making them ______

Alpha 2
Beta 2
relax

49

Sympathetics act on sphincters of the GI via ____receptors, making them ______

Alpha 1
contract

50

Parasympathetics act on
walls
sphincters
secretions
of the GI via ____receptors, making them ______

walls; contract
Sphincters: relax
Secretions; increase
Muscarinic

51

Sympathetics act on genitourinary smooth muscle
Bladder walls
Sphincter
Uterus, pregnant
Penis, seminal vesicles
via ____receptors, making them ______

Bladder walls; beta 2; relax;
Sphincter; alpha 1; contract;
Uterus, pregnant; beta 2; relax
Penis, seminal vesicles; alpha; ejaculation

52

Parasympathetics act on genitourinary smooth muscle
Bladder walls
Sphincter
Penis, seminal vesicles
via ____receptors, making them ______

Bladder walls; M; contract;
Sphincter; M; relax;
Penis, seminal vesicles; M; erection

53

Sympathetics act on skin pilomotor smooth muscle
via ____receptors, making them ______

alpha
Contracts

54

Sympathetics act on skin eccrine via ____receptors, making them ______

Muscarinic
Increases

55

Sympathetics act on skin apocrine (stress) via ____receptors, making them ______

Alpha
Increase

56

Sympathetics act on metabolic functions of
Liver
Fat cells
Kidney
via ____receptors, making them ______

Liver; B2, alpha; Gluconeogenesis and Glycogenolysis
Fat cells; B3; Lipolysis
Kidney; B1; Renin release

57

In the kidney, what releases DA

Sympathetic nerve terminals

58

What is the name of a D1 agonist

fenoldapan

59

What does D1 agonist do in the kidney

Increase renal blood flow
GFR and sodium secetion

60

What does D1 agonist do to vasculature and heart

Vasodilation;
renal
cerebral
cardiac
mesenteric
vasculature

61

What does a D2 agonist (DA) do to post ganglionic sympathetic nerve terminals

decrease neurotransmitter release

62

What does a D2 agonist do in the chemoreceptor trigger zone

Nausea and vomiting

63

What are five therapeutic uses of epi

Bronchospasms
Anaphylaxis
Restore function in cardiac arrest
Treat open angle glaucoma
Prolong action of local anesthetics

64

What are four cardiac side effects of epi

Increased HR
palpitations
arrhythmias
anginal pain

65

What are some vascular side effects of epi

Increased TPR leading to pallor
Increased BP

66

What are some respiratory side effects of epi

Increased TPR can lead to pulmonary edema