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Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (28):
1

thyroid Storm

Fever
CHF
Coma

2

PTH functions

Activate osteoclasts and bone resorption.
Increase serum calcium.
Activate Vit D and increase GI absorption.
Increase tubular resorption of Ca.

3

Sx of hypercalcemia due to hyperparathyroidism

Usually due to adenoma
osteoporosis.
constipation
weakness
anorexia
stones
Peptic ulcers
coma
arrhythmias.

4

what are the sx of hypopparathyroidism

Hypocalcemia
anxiety depression
↓ in PTH
tetany
Dental changes in children: poor enamel, brittle/missing teeth.

5

Anterior pituitary

portal circulation from hypothalamus, sends releasing factors.
Rathke's pouch

6

Posterior pituitary

go into systemic circulation.
buds from hypothalamus.
ADH
oxytocin

7

What hormones cause Cushing's disease

Corticotropin affects ACTH

8

what hormone affects reproduction functions

prolactin

9

What problems can GH cause

Acromegaly in adults
Gigantism in children

10

what is the most common cause of hypopituitarism

nonsecretory pituitary adenomas

11

What are the sx of anterior pituitary insufficiency

loss of sex characteristics-sterility
retard growth in children
Hypothyroidism

12

What are the sx of posterior pituitary insufficiency

Diabetes insipidus; no glucose or insulin involved
Polydipsia
Inapropriate ADH secretion, Hyponatremia and hemodilution

13

What can cause hypopituarism

metastasized carcinoma
CNS infection

14

What does the adrenal medulla produce

Cathecolamines; EPI and NOREPI

15

What does the adrenal cortex produce

Mineralcorticoids
Glucocorticoids
Sex steroids

16

Features of primary acute cortical insufficiency

Weakness
Nausea
hyponatremia
Hyperkalemia
Hypotension
Skin pigmentation
Addison disease
Adrenal crisis; Waterhouse-Friderichson syndrome

17

Features of secondary acute adrenocorticocal insufficiency

No hyperpigmentation
Aldosterone usually normal

18

Common cause of secondary acute adrenocorticocal insufficiency

abrupt discontinuation of steroid tx

19

Features of Addison's disease

Autoimmune adrenalitis
most often white females
65% of adrenal insufficiencies
can be caused by infections; TB

20

What disease comes from hypercorticolism

Cushing's disease
ACTH too low
Cortisol too high
Autonomous adrenals

21

Features of hyperaldosteronism

Primary; adenoma
Na retention
K excretion
Suppression of renin-angiotensin system
Secondary; renal disease/cirrhosis

22

Features of Pheochromocytoma

Tumor of adrenal medulla; ↑ secretion of catecholamines
Hypertension
Flushing
↑ urine catecholamines

23

short lasting cortisones

hydrocortisone
Prednisone

24

Long lasting cortisones

Dexamethasone

25

Ketoconazole MOA

Inhibits adrenal steroid synthesis

26

Metyrapone MOA

Reduces cortisol synthesis

27

Mifepristone MOA

Steroid receptor antagonist

28

what stimulates osteoblasts directly

PTH
vit D