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Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (18):
1

What is diabetes

the relative or absolute deficiency of insulin, causing glucose intolerance.
fasting sugar > 126 mg/dL

2

what are the fasting levels of glucose for prediabetics

100-125mg/ gl

3

what are the sx of diabetes

polydipsia and polyphagia
plyuria
Unexplained weight loss

4

what does insulin do

Anabolic hormone.
promotes glucose and aa thought membranes of:
skeletal
smooth
cardia muscle cells
fibroblasts
FAT CELLS

5

What cells are not affected by insulin

neurons
Kidney
RBCs

6

What are the features of type I diabetes

Insulin requiring; no natural insulin
Young and thin
Loss of islet beta cells due to auto immune process most likely viral infection.
Ketoacidosis-dehydration. deep labored breathing due to acidosis
nausea
coma

7

What is the term for increase urination

Polyuria

8

What is the term for increased thirst

Polydipsia

9

What is the term for increased hunger

Polyphagia

10

What are the actions of Insulin:

Glycogenolysis
Lypolysis
Increased conversion of aa to glucose
Increased protein synthesis
Increased glucose transport.

11

Insulin synthesis

proinsulin (small peptide) converted to insulin and protein C
Half life is 3-5 min.

12

where age Glut-2 receptors found

ß cells

13

Where are Glut-4 receptors found

Muscle and fat cells

14

name of rapid acting Insulin

Lispro
Aspar
Glulicine
4 hr duration

15

name of short acting insulin that lengthens duration

Novolin, often combined with NPH
Peak 2-3 hrs

16

What is NPH

neutral protein hagedorn.
Immediate acting
Delay action due to link to peptide protamide
Becoming less popular
Onset 2-15 hrs,
Duration 4-12 hrs.

17

What are two background insulin drugs

Glargine; long lasting sustained insulin
Determir.

18

What are the side effects of hypoglycemia (too much insulin)

Tachycardia
Perspiration
Tremors
Hunger
comfusion
Seizures
Coma