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Flashcards in midterm 3 Deck (111):
1

Epithelial/Endothelial malignant tumor

Carcinoma
- squamous cell carcinoma

2

Mesenchymal malignant tumor

Sarcoma
-Osteosarcoma
-Rhabdomyosarcoma
-Leiomyosarcoma; smooth muscle

3

Lymphoid malignant tumor

Lymphoma

4

Melanotic malignant tumor

Melanoma

5

Hematopoietic malignant tumor

Leukemia

6

Benign epithelial glandular tumor

Adenoma

7

Benign epithelial papillary tumor

Papilloma

8

Benign smooth muscle tumor

Leiomyoma

9

What is mal-developed tissue native to site

Hemartoma
-nodular tongue

10

what is mal-developed tissue in other organs

Choristoma

11

What leads to chronic myelocytic leukemia

translocation of chromosome 22. 9:22.
Philadelphia chromosome

12

What gene regulates apoptosis and is the most common gene mutation

P53

13

Tumor related to HPV

Carcinoma of cervix and oropharyngeal

14

Tumor related to EBV

Mononucleosis
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

15

Tumor related to Hep B and C

Hepatocellular carcinoma

16

Tumor related to HHV 8

Kaposi sarcoma (AIDS)

17

What is carcinoid syndrome

Metastasis of intestinal carcinoid
Flushing and diarrhea
Right heart fibrosis

18

Malignant tumor of endothelial tissue (vessels)

angiosarcoma

19

Reed Sternberg cells are associated with

Hodgkins lymphoma.
large, multinucleated B lymphocytes.

20

Facts of Hodgkins lymphoma

younger pts
good prognosis
Reed Stenberg cells (B-cell neoplasm)
EBV found in 80%

21

Facts of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

various levels of aggresiveness
poor prognosis
Burkitts's lymphoma; very aggressive

22

What is incidence

newly diagnosed cases/time

23

What is mortality

death/time period

24

What is Prevalence

Number of new and pre-existing cases at one moment.

25

What is PSA

Prostate specific antigen

26

What is CBA

Carcinoembryonic antigen-colon carcinoma

27

What is CA-125

Serous ovarian carcinoma test

28

What is HCG

Choriocarcinoma test

29

What are the leading causes of cancer deaths in US in order

lung
Prostate
Breast

30

What is the most common cancer in Africa

Liver cell carcinoma due to link with viral Hep.

31

What cancer is linked to APC gene

Familial adenomatous polyposis/colon cancer

32

Breast and ovarian cancers linked to

BRCA 1 and 2

33

What is the most common tumor in children

Retinoblastoma

34

What does the WT-1 gene regulate

apoptosis such as in Wilms tumor

35

What gene repairs mismatched genes

HNPCC

36

What test measures if a chemical alters genetic changes in bacteria and would be a carcinogen

Ames test

37

What is the most common type of malignancy

Carcinoma

38

Adenocarcinoma facts

Forms glands
cuboidal or columnar cells
Ex: Colon, breast, prostate, lung

39

Examples of Mesenchymal (sarcomas) tumors

Kaposi's
Angiosarcoma
Chondrosarcoma
Leiomyosarcoma
Liposarcoma

40

Examples of lymphomas

Hodgkins lymphoma
Non-Hodgkins lymphoma
Burkitt's lymphoma

41

What are two genetic risks examples

Familial adenomatous polyposis/colon cancer; APC gene
Some breast and ovarian cancers; BRCA 1 and 2 genes

42

What are the Txs for cancer

Surgical removal
Radiation therapy
Chemotherapy

43

Cyclophosphamide is used to treat

Hodgkin's lymphoma
Multiple myeloma
Breast cancer
Leukemia

44

What are nitrosureas used for

Brain tumor
able to cross BB barrier.
combo tx for Hodgkin's lymphoma

45

What is the mcc of severe loss of sight in 60+ pts

Age-related macular degeneration.

46

What is the tx for wet AMD

Bevacizumab

47

What mutation occurs in up to 50% of tumors and can lead to resistance to rad therapy

P53 mutation

48

What drug blocks ECGR and is the tx for non-smll cell lung and pancreatic cancer

Erlotibib

49

What cancer exhibits primary resistance on initial exposure

Melanoma

50

Resistance to alkylating agents develops as

increased capacity to repair damaged DNA

51

What are the adverse effects of alkylating agents

nausea, vomiting
Damage to rapidly growing tissues
Carcinogenic in nature; increased risk of secondary cancer
observed as early as 2-4 yrs after.
Acute myelogenous leukemia.

52

What is cisplatin

Tx of broad range of solid tumors
nephrotic

53

MOA and SE of antimetabolites (Methyltrexate)

Inhibits tetrahydrofolate
Mucositis, diarrhea.

54

What is Fluorouracil used for

Colorectal
Anal
breast
H and N
Hepatocellular cancers
Decreases DNA synthesis and function.

55

What are two anti tumor Abx

doxorubicin
Bleomycin
Tx: Lymphomas, breast and thyroid cr.

56

What leukemia is most common in children

Acute Lymphoblast leukemia (ALL)

57

What is the most common form of leukemia in adults

Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)

58

Hodgkin's lymphoma drugs

Anthracycline
Doxorubicin
bleomycin
Vinblastine

59

What is multiple myeloma

plasma cell malignancy, primarily in bone marrow.
Bone pain, fractures, anemia.
tx; alkylating agents, prednisone

60

Drug used for colorectal cr

5-fluorouracil

61

what viruses are associated with infectious esophagitis

Herpes
Candida
CMV

62

Facts of infectious esophagitis

Affects entire GI tract.
Multiple discrete, well circumscribed superficial ulcers.

63

what are the aggravating factors for reflux esophagitis

obesity, pregnancy, drug use ( ↓ esophageal pressure, alc/to use, narcotics, nicotine patch)

64

What are the complications of reflux esophagitis

Ulceration
stricture
Barrett esophagus

65

Chronic gastritis facts

H. pylori gastritis-doudenal
Pyloric ulcers
May lead to cancer.
autoimmune gastritis

66

Facts of AI atrophic gastritis

Genetic factors
No ulcers
Decreased gastric acid
Intestinal metaplasia
malabsorption of B12 (pernicious anemia)

67

Why do you get polyps

response to gastric injury around ulcers

68

Fact of gastric carcinoma

looks like intestinal tissue and diffuse
some have hereditary connection.

69

Intestinal obstruction small bowel

Intestinal obstruction 80%
Neoplasm and infarction 20%

70

What is Hirschsprung disease

Congenital defect in colonic innervation
Failure to pass meconium

71

Facts of Celiac sprue

Immune mediated (glutten)
malnutrition: Iron, B12 malabsorption
atrophic glossitis
enamel defects, delayed eruption, aphthous ulcers, cheilosis.

72

What is lymphocytic colitis

increased intraepithelial lymphocytes

73

What microorganims are associated with self-limiting colitis

Salmonella
E. coli
Shigella
Clostridium

74

Pseudomembranous colitis is associated with use of

broad spectrum Abx therapy

75

What is the most common nosocomial infection in older adults

pseudomembranous colitis.

76

cholecystitis facts

Acute often caused by gallstones and obstruction.
can become chronic.

77

What is fatty liver caused by

ETHOH
Obesity
diabetes

78

What is Hep caused by

virus
drug
AI

79

What are the five types of liver disease

Fatty liver
Hepatitis
Biliary disease
Metabolic disease
Vascular

80

What is the number one cause of liver toxicity

Drugs

81

what causes the worst liver destruction

fibrosis; leads to collagen scar and permanent injury

82

Acute hep is caused by what viruses

A
E

83

What Hep types have vaccines for

A
B
D

84

What Heps can cause a chronic infection and have a percutaneous premucosal mode of transmission

B
C
D

85

What hep virus is found in > 170 million carriers worldwide

Hep C

86

What hep virus chronically infects 2 billion people

Hep B

87

Facts of Hep B

15-25% will die from complications
can lead to cancer of liver (hepatocarcinoma)
important to get vaccinated.

88

What is cirrhosis

regenerative hepatocyte nodules.
Fibrosis surrounding nodules.

89

Where is AI hep usually found

Obese females predominantly

90

metabolic diseases are often associated with

iron overload

91

What is Wilson's disease

copper metabolic defect goes to hep then cirrhosis.

92

What is GERD

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.
Chronic

93

Where is water and alcohol absorbed

Stomach

94

What is absorbed in duodenum

Fe
Ca
Mg
Na
fats
water
Protein
Vitamins

95

What is absorbed in Jejunum

Carbohydrates
Proteins

96

What is absorbed in the Ileum

Bile salts
B-12
Cl

97

What are two laxatives

Bisacodyl; stimulant of smooth muscles
Ducosate; (Dulcolax) Water retention in stools, softens stools.

98

Diarrhea meds

Loperamine
Bismuth Subsalicylate
Atropine

99

IBS meds

Linaclotide (Linzess)

100

Ulcerative colitis facts

Similar to crohn's but limited to colon and more generalized.
No strictures.

101

Where is the highest concentration of Hep in oral cavity

gingival sulcus

102

What are hep manifestations

Lichen planus
Periodontal disease
Candidiasis
Increased oral bleeding
Increased incidence of type II diabetes
Sjogrens syndrome

103

What are three H2 Inhibitors

Cimetidine (Tagamet)
Ranitidine (Zantac)
Famotidine (Pepcid)

104

What are examples of PPI

Omeprazole (prilosec)
Omeprazole + sodium bicarbonate (Zegerid)
Lansorazole (Prevacid)
Esomeprazole (Nexium)

105

What is Prevpac

lasoprazole
Amoxicillin
clarithromycin

106

laxatives

Bisacodyl
Docusate

107

Diarrhea control

Loperamide
Bismuth Subsalicylate
Atropine

108

Drug for IBS constipation

Linaclotide (Linzess)

109

Drugs for IBD (crohn's)

Mesalamine
Corticosteroids
Metronidazole

110

Tx for granulomatosis

infliximab (TNF α blocker)

111

Most common drug to cause liver damage

Ethanol