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Flashcards in Final Deck (97):
1

What is the tx for lead poisoning

EDTA

2

What are the sx for lead poisoning

headaches
Neurocognitive deficits
Kidney damage
Burtonian lines (gingiva)

3

Hg is used primarily in what form

MethylHg
Reacts with Selenium

4

What are the sx of Hg poisoning

gingivostomatitis
Neuronlogical
Psychiatric: Memory loss, depression, confusion

5

What is the tx for Hg poisoning

Cimercaprol: chronic us can cause renal toxicity
Succimer

6

How is arsenic absorbed

Respiratory
GI
Poor absorption through skin

7

What are the sx of arsenic poisoning

fatigue
anemia
renal failure
Hyperpigmentation
Hemolytic on RBC

8

What is the tx for acute arsenic intoxication

Decontamination
Unithiol (IV)
Dimercaprol (IM)

9

What is the tx for chronic arsenic intoxication

Folate dietary supplements
NO CHELATORS; irreversible damage has already occurred.

10

What is the tx for acute arsine intoxication

hemodialysis and transfusions
agressive hydration
NO CHELATORS; no benefit

11

How do chelators work

they render heavy metal ions unavailable for covalent interactions.
the longer the t1/2 of the heavy metal, the less effective is the chelator

12

When is dimercaprol used

for arsenic and Hg combined
It pulls Pb from bone and it goes to brain causing toxicity. contraindicated for lead poisoning alone.
Narrow therapeutic index.
Mostly has been replaced by succimer.

13

what is Succimer used for

Tx of
Pb, As and Hg poisoning.
water soluble; oral uses only, urinary excretion.
t1/2= 2-4 hrs

14

What is EDTA used for

Tx of Pb poisoning
chelates extracellular Pb only
IV,
100 by kidneys. Not for anuric pts.

15

What is Unithiol used for

Tx of Hg, As and Pb poisoning.
Water soluble
Oral or IV
t1/2=20hrs
NOT FDA APPROVED FOR ANY HEAVY METAL POISONINGS.

16

How does cyanide work

It is NOT a heavy metal
Prevents cells of the body from getting oxygen and ATP

17

What is the antidote for cyanide

Hydroxycobalamin

18

Pure Food and Drug Act

Addiction to opium and cocaine.
requires labeling and name ingredients.
patent medications.

19

Modified Food, Drug and Cosmetic act

Requires safety; caused by diethleneglycol tragedy
Drugs must be safe.

20

Durham Humphrey Amendment

Many new drugs needed to be regulated.
Rx vs OTC

21

Kefauver-Harris Amendment

phocomelia caused by thalidomide (morning sickness)
Required testing for safety and efficacy.

22

Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act

Due to little regulation
regulates herbal products like food
-Serving size
-Structure function claims
NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT, CURE, PREVENT ANY DISEASE.

23

Rx drugs

Addictive potential
Toxic, serious indications.

24

What agency controls animal testing

IACUC

25

What is phase I

Small group of healthy subjects
Safety, dose, administration and kinetics

26

What is Phase II

small group of subjects with conditions to be treated to test safety and efficacy.

27

What is phase III

extended clinical phase
large group of subjects

28

What is phase IV

Markenting.
See how product does in production.

29

IRB

Institutional Review Board

30

NDA

New drug application

31

IND

Investigational New Drug

32

Orphan drug act

For rare diseases to encourage drug development.

33

OTC decongestants

Vasoconstrictors, sympathomimetics
Oxymetazoline
Phenylephrine
Pseudophedrine (restricted sales)
-systemic: Increase BP and HR, longer acting
-Topical: short acting but more effective.

34

Antihistamines

Not effective for colds.
-dyphenhydramine (drowsiness)
-Cholpheniramine (Chlor-trimeton)
-Loratidine (claritin) (Less Drowsiness)

35

Antitussives

Codeine
Depenhydramine (Antihistamine)
Dextromethorphan (Robitussin)

36

Expectorants

Guaifenesin

37

Demulcents

Coat the throat to reduce irritation.

38

Antivirals

Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)
Zanamivir (Relenza)
Docosanol (Abreba)

39

What are the cons of acetaminophen

Not an anti-inflammatory
Liver toxic

40

What are the cons of Ibuprofen

GI irritation
Anti-clotting

41

What is Xanthine

caffeine
Adenosine antagonist

42

What are the side effects of nicotine replacement

Dizziness
Headache
Nausea

43

Two drugs, antihistamine and OTC sleep aid

Diphenhydramine
Doxylamine

44

Antifungal, thrush, vaginal infections

Miconazole

45

Antibiotic, first aid

Neosporin
polysporin

46

What drug is used for pain relief, targets TRPV channels
Decreases substance P

Capsacin

47

Anti-cholinergic drug, tx for motion sickness sx

Scopolamine

48

What are the side effects of Scopolamine

Drowsiness
Disorientation
Dry mouth
Blurred vision
dilated pupils
constipation

49

anticholinegic drug for tx of motion sickness with less side effects

Dimenhydrinate

50

side effects of Dimenhydrinate

Dry mouth
constipation
blurred vision
reduced urination.

51

Vasodialator use for hair growth

Minoxidil
Causes rapid HR

52

Tx of hemorrhoids

Phelylephrine (vasoconstrictor)

53

What is the active ingredient in marijuana

anandamine (neurotransmitter
THC
Schedule I

54

name of FDA approved marijuana agonist

Marinol (dronabinol)
tx; nausea, appetite, glaucoma, chronic pain

55

Analog promoted as anti seizure not as addicting as THC

CBD; cannabidiol

56

What agency regulates herbal products

DSHEA
Once marketed FDA regulates its safety.

57

herbal for depression

St. John's Wort

58

Herbal for colds

Echinacea

59

Herbal for skin care

Aloe vera

60

Herbal to lower cholesterol

Garlic

61

Herbal to improve memory

Ginko

62

Herbal to boost immune system, lower blood sugar

Ginseng

63

Who is the head of the ONDCP

Drug Czar
oversees DEA, NIDA and NIAAA (NIH)

64

What is Sch I

No current acceptable medical use in US.
lacks accepted safety for use under medical supervision.
HIGH potential for abuse.
Ex: Heroin, LSD, Cannabis, meth

65

What is Sch II

High potential for abuse.
May lead to severe psychological or physical dependence
Ex; Hydromorphone, methadone, meperidine, fentanyl, Hydrocodone.

66

What is Sch III

have potential for abuse, may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.
Ex; Codeine, buprenorphine, Ketamine.

67

What is Sch IV

Low potential for abuse.
Ex; Alprazolam, Diazepan, Triazolam (tramadol)

68

What is Sch V

Low potential for abuse
Ex; bought preparations, Robitussin

69

Metabotropic receptor

Not directly linked to Ion channel.
Second messenger; G protein
Long term effects; seconds to minutes.

70

Ionotropic receptor

Same as ligand gated
Immediate and brief action.
Ex. AMPA, NACH, GABA

71

GABA is

inhibitory

72

Glutamate

excitatory
directly stimulates N-methyl d aspartate receptors

73

What does tryptophan hydroxylase do

coverts tryptophan to 5HTP

74

What does tyrosine hydroxylase do

converts tyrosine to DOPA

75

What is responsible for the degradation of 5-hydroxytryptamine

monoamine oxidase (MOA)

76

What would cause a rapid, direct decrease in NE synthesis
and can cause severe orthostatic hypotension

DBH; dopamine ß hydroxylase inhibitor.

77

What is phentolamine

α inhibitor

78

Decongestants fall under what category

α1 agonist

79

Three examples of partial seizures

Simple partial
complex partial
Onset of secondarily generalized

80

Ethosuximide is only good for

Absence seizures

81

Huntingtons disease

Excessive excitation of NMDA receptors by excessive dopamine on striatal cell bodies.

82

Parkinson's disease

greater than 70% destruction of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons

83

Depression

Imbalance of CNS noradrenergic or serotonergic systems

84

Multiple Sclerosis

localized deterioration of myelin in the CNS

85

Schizophrenia

excessive D2 activity in frontal cortex

86

Alzheimer's

Most common 3-4 million
Excessive abnormal APP (Amyloid Precursor Protein)
Beta amyloid plaques
Neurofibrillary tangles; tau protein

87

What drug is particularly effective for bone related pain

Diflunisal (Dolobid)

88

What analgesic is ude to treat opioid dependance

Methadone

89

Meds for anxiety

Benzos
Barbiturates: bupropion

90

What does serotonin decarboxylase do

Converts 5HTP to 5HT

91

MAO degrades

Dopamine
Serotonin
NE

92

Pesticides are? and should be treated with

AChE inhibitors so there is a lot of ACh floating around.
Tx. Muscarinic antagonist

93

Postganglionic sympathetics can release

DA (Renal vascular smooth muscle)
EPI
NE

94

What naturally occurring opioid primarily activates kappa opioid receptors

dynorphins 17 aa

95

What naturally occurring opioid primarily activate miu and Delta opioid receptors

b-endorphins 91 AA

96

if it is an endorphin it will have one or both of these

methyanine
Leucine

97

encephalin

miu and delta
5 aa