Flashcards in Final Deck (97):
What is the tx for lead poisoning
What are the sx for lead poisoning
Burtonian lines (gingiva)
Hg is used primarily in what form
Reacts with Selenium
What are the sx of Hg poisoning
Psychiatric: Memory loss, depression, confusion
What is the tx for Hg poisoning
Cimercaprol: chronic us can cause renal toxicity
How is arsenic absorbed
Poor absorption through skin
What are the sx of arsenic poisoning
Hemolytic on RBC
What is the tx for acute arsenic intoxication
What is the tx for chronic arsenic intoxication
Folate dietary supplements
NO CHELATORS; irreversible damage has already occurred.
What is the tx for acute arsine intoxication
hemodialysis and transfusions
NO CHELATORS; no benefit
How do chelators work
they render heavy metal ions unavailable for covalent interactions.
the longer the t1/2 of the heavy metal, the less effective is the chelator
When is dimercaprol used
for arsenic and Hg combined
It pulls Pb from bone and it goes to brain causing toxicity. contraindicated for lead poisoning alone.
Narrow therapeutic index.
Mostly has been replaced by succimer.
what is Succimer used for
Pb, As and Hg poisoning.
water soluble; oral uses only, urinary excretion.
t1/2= 2-4 hrs
What is EDTA used for
Tx of Pb poisoning
chelates extracellular Pb only
100 by kidneys. Not for anuric pts.
What is Unithiol used for
Tx of Hg, As and Pb poisoning.
Oral or IV
NOT FDA APPROVED FOR ANY HEAVY METAL POISONINGS.
How does cyanide work
It is NOT a heavy metal
Prevents cells of the body from getting oxygen and ATP
What is the antidote for cyanide
Pure Food and Drug Act
Addiction to opium and cocaine.
requires labeling and name ingredients.
Modified Food, Drug and Cosmetic act
Requires safety; caused by diethleneglycol tragedy
Drugs must be safe.
Durham Humphrey Amendment
Many new drugs needed to be regulated.
Rx vs OTC
phocomelia caused by thalidomide (morning sickness)
Required testing for safety and efficacy.
Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act
Due to little regulation
regulates herbal products like food
-Structure function claims
NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT, CURE, PREVENT ANY DISEASE.
Toxic, serious indications.
What agency controls animal testing
What is phase I
Small group of healthy subjects
Safety, dose, administration and kinetics
What is Phase II
small group of subjects with conditions to be treated to test safety and efficacy.
What is phase III
extended clinical phase
large group of subjects
What is phase IV
See how product does in production.
Institutional Review Board
New drug application
Investigational New Drug
Orphan drug act
For rare diseases to encourage drug development.
Pseudophedrine (restricted sales)
-systemic: Increase BP and HR, longer acting
-Topical: short acting but more effective.
Not effective for colds.
-Loratidine (claritin) (Less Drowsiness)
Coat the throat to reduce irritation.
What are the cons of acetaminophen
Not an anti-inflammatory
What are the cons of Ibuprofen
What is Xanthine
What are the side effects of nicotine replacement
Two drugs, antihistamine and OTC sleep aid
Antifungal, thrush, vaginal infections
Antibiotic, first aid
What drug is used for pain relief, targets TRPV channels
Decreases substance P
Anti-cholinergic drug, tx for motion sickness sx
What are the side effects of Scopolamine
anticholinegic drug for tx of motion sickness with less side effects
side effects of Dimenhydrinate
Vasodialator use for hair growth
Causes rapid HR
Tx of hemorrhoids
What is the active ingredient in marijuana
name of FDA approved marijuana agonist
tx; nausea, appetite, glaucoma, chronic pain
Analog promoted as anti seizure not as addicting as THC
What agency regulates herbal products
Once marketed FDA regulates its safety.
herbal for depression
St. John's Wort
Herbal for colds
Herbal for skin care
Herbal to lower cholesterol
Herbal to improve memory
Herbal to boost immune system, lower blood sugar
Who is the head of the ONDCP
oversees DEA, NIDA and NIAAA (NIH)
What is Sch I
No current acceptable medical use in US.
lacks accepted safety for use under medical supervision.
HIGH potential for abuse.
Ex: Heroin, LSD, Cannabis, meth
What is Sch II
High potential for abuse.
May lead to severe psychological or physical dependence
Ex; Hydromorphone, methadone, meperidine, fentanyl, Hydrocodone.
What is Sch III
have potential for abuse, may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.
Ex; Codeine, buprenorphine, Ketamine.
What is Sch IV
Low potential for abuse.
Ex; Alprazolam, Diazepan, Triazolam (tramadol)
What is Sch V
Low potential for abuse
Ex; bought preparations, Robitussin
Not directly linked to Ion channel.
Second messenger; G protein
Long term effects; seconds to minutes.
Same as ligand gated
Immediate and brief action.
Ex. AMPA, NACH, GABA
directly stimulates N-methyl d aspartate receptors
What does tryptophan hydroxylase do
coverts tryptophan to 5HTP
What does tyrosine hydroxylase do
converts tyrosine to DOPA
What is responsible for the degradation of 5-hydroxytryptamine
monoamine oxidase (MOA)
What would cause a rapid, direct decrease in NE synthesis
and can cause severe orthostatic hypotension
DBH; dopamine ß hydroxylase inhibitor.
What is phentolamine
Decongestants fall under what category
Three examples of partial seizures
Onset of secondarily generalized
Ethosuximide is only good for
Excessive excitation of NMDA receptors by excessive dopamine on striatal cell bodies.
greater than 70% destruction of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons
Imbalance of CNS noradrenergic or serotonergic systems
localized deterioration of myelin in the CNS
excessive D2 activity in frontal cortex
Most common 3-4 million
Excessive abnormal APP (Amyloid Precursor Protein)
Beta amyloid plaques
Neurofibrillary tangles; tau protein
What drug is particularly effective for bone related pain
What analgesic is ude to treat opioid dependance
Meds for anxiety
What does serotonin decarboxylase do
Converts 5HTP to 5HT
Pesticides are? and should be treated with
AChE inhibitors so there is a lot of ACh floating around.
Tx. Muscarinic antagonist
Postganglionic sympathetics can release
DA (Renal vascular smooth muscle)
What naturally occurring opioid primarily activates kappa opioid receptors
dynorphins 17 aa
What naturally occurring opioid primarily activate miu and Delta opioid receptors
b-endorphins 91 AA
if it is an endorphin it will have one or both of these