Crisis Intervention-Ch 1, Historical and Theoretical Overview of Crisis Intervention Flashcards Preview

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Goal of crisis intervention is

to assist the victims to return to their precrisis levels of behavior.


Parad and Caplan and Rapaport maintain that a state of crisis creates a perceived threat, a loss or challenge and that a crisis has three distinct components:

1. hazardous or critical event
2. a threat to instinctive need
3. an inability to apply adaptive coping behaviors


Aguilera, Messick and Farrell refer to a person in crisis as

one is at a turning point.


Dixon defines a crisis as a

functionally debilitating mental state resulting from the individual's reaction to some event perceived to be so dangerous that it leaves him feeling helpless and unable to cope by usual methods


well known, often exaggerated example of crisis prone is victim of child abuse ends up abusing children

intergenerational transmission of child abuse


The successful resolution of crises may reduce the risk of later crises. of particular interest to criminal justice practitioners is that successful crisis intervention may function to reduce the risk of both later criminal victimization and later criminal behavior



A key element in the production of a crisis, how one perceives the significance of a critical event will determine whether a crisis results.

Perception--"Crisis is in the eye of the beholder"


There are many definitions of crisis intervention, the
following suits the purpose of this book.

Crisis intervention is the timely intrusion into people's lives when their own coping mechanisms prove ineffective. Crisis intervention is an immediate response to an urgent problem.


In some ways, crisis intervention is similar to psychotherapy and short-term counseling. Similarities and differences

1. Goal of crisis intervention is to assist crisis victims to return to their precrisis levels of functioning and to seek avenues for positive change. crisis intervention methods differ slightly from short-term couseling or psychotherapy
2. crisis intervention focuses on the present, here and now, whereas long-term counseling and psychoanalysis focus on past and how it affects current situation
3. crisis intervention uses a direct, active role for the intervener, while other therapeutic techniques use more indirect or nondirective approach


Goal of long term counseling, psychotherapy, and psychoanalysis is

to better equip the client to deal with life, which usually involves a significant time commitment


Primary difference between crisis intervention and counseling/psychotherapy is

crisis intervention is brief, immediate, short-term, symptom-oriented


Slaikeu makes a useful distinction between psychological first aid or first-order intervention and crisis therapy or second-order intervention.

psychological first aid is problem-oriented intervention by on-site caregivers
Crisis therapy is individual-oriented intervention by persons who specialize in counseling. long term counseling


critical incident stress debriefing

used to describe interventions with emergency workers who are at risk of crisis from their efforts to assist the victims and survivors of critical incidents


perhaps most critical characteristic that a intervener must possess



Any helping relationship requires the intervener to show

1. empathy
2. warmth
3. genuineness


Crow indicates that crisis intervention requires "a special kind of communication that consists of ____,____ ,_____and ____



crows suggests that the intervener use a communication loop in which messages, ideas and feelings are sent out by crisis victim, picked up by the intervener and returned to the victim in a slightly modified form. this is referred to as

reflective listening.


Cumming, Cumming and Edell, Punch and Naylor and Cain indicate that the police are society's ____

front-line mental health officers


what percent of a police officers time is devoted to helping services while only a minority portion is devoted to enforcement



1999 participants in the National Crime Victimization Survey were asked detailed questions about their contacts with police.

*43.8 million persons age 16 or older or 21 percent of population had face-to-face contact with police.
*more than 65% involved traffic stops, accidents.
*28% persons reporting crimes
*21% request for assistance or neighborhood probl
*3% suspect in a crime


goal of deinstitutionalization

was to allow as many persons as possible to remain in the community as outpatients.


Deinstitutionalization of mentally ill began in 1960s. Problems with deinstitutionalization is

many states and private insures do not fund outpatient mental health services at adequate levels.
Medications are used to treat mental illness with minimal, if any, psychotherapy.
without monitoring, persons stop taking medications or continue meds that are ineffective or countereffective.


Borum, Deane, Steadman, Morrissey identify three program models in which incidents are handled by

*specially trained police officers
*mental health professionals employed by police
*mobile mental health crisis teams independent from police dept


Only prisons that did not experience a riot or disturbance

were the solitary confinement penitentiaries founded by the Quakers.


Rosenbaum employed an experimental design to assess the effects of crisis intervention training on Detroit police recruits and found it had dramatic impact on recruits attitudes toward crime victims and use of crisis intervention.

That the effects of training will only persist if the training is reinforced by the agency.
officers sensitivity declined after 4 months in field.


Name of the authors

James E Hendricks
Jerome McKean
Cindy Gillespie Hendricks