Crisis Intervention-Ch 9, Maltreatment of the Elderly Flashcards Preview

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Victims sometimes fear retaliation from the abuser. Victim is dependent on the abuser, victim fear that abuser will be incarcerated.

Dark Figure of Elder Maltreatment sec.


Older persons cannot report financial abuse because they are not aware of it. The "old-old" (persons over 80) are among the most frequent victims of maltreatment.

Dark Figure of Elder Maltreatment sec


NCEA suggests an "iceberg" analogy to understand the dark figure of elder maltreatment.

Cases of maltreatment that are substantiated by APS are the visible tip of the iceberg.


National Elder Abuse Incidence Study

Collected data from local Adult Protective Service agencies and from "sentinels".


sentinels are

persons from agencies that have frequent contact with the elderly and who were specialized trained by National Center for Elder Abuse.


NEAIS indicated that in 1996, an estimated ____ persons age 60 and over experienced abuse, neglect or self-neglect.

551,011.. 21% of cases were substantiated by APS


of the 551,011 estimated cases of maltreatment in 1996, 73% involved some form of abuse, 73% involved neglect or abandonment, 25% involved self-neglect.

Distrution of types of maltreatment section


APS agencies received an estimated 236,479 reports of maltreatment in 1996 and 115,110 were substantiated. 48.7%

distribution of types of maltreatment section


most common types of maltreatment attributed to others in substantiated APS reports were

neglect, emotional/psychological abuse, financial/material exploitation and physical abuse


Characteristic of Victims

1. age- "old-old", over age 80 were most likely to be victims of most kinds of abuse. However, sentinel data indicated that physical, financial, and emotional abuse were more common among those who were 60 to 70 yrs old
2. gender- majority of victims were women. three-fourths of emotional/psycho abuse, 70% of physical abuse and over 60% of neglect.
MEN were majority of victims of abandonment
3. Income- most victims $5000 to $14,999 regardless of form of maltreatment. Income of $15,000 or more was reported less
4. Race- African Americans comprised of 8.3% of elderly population in 1996.
5. self-care- one-half of victims of abuse were unable to care for themselves and additional 23% were only somewhat able to do so.
6. Confusion and Depression- 10% of national elderly population is estimated to suffer from dementia, 60% of maltreatment victims experienced some degree of confusion. Victims of elder maltreatment also were more likely than all elders to suffer from depression


Characteristics of Perpetrators

1.Gender- Men were perps of maltreatment in 52.5% of substantiated cases. 63% reported by sentinels. Males most frequent of abandonment, physical abuse, emotional abuse and financial/material exploit. Women were slightly more likely than men to be involved in neglect
2. Age- one-third of perps were over 60, 38% between 41 and 59, remainder under 40.
3. Race- three-fourths of perps of abuse were White and 18% were black.
4. Relationship to victim- over 90% of perps of maltreatment were related to victim. nearly half (47.3%) were children and 19% were spouses.


The sentinel data also showed that ______ were most often the perpetrators of maltreatment



Elder maltreatment first became an issue about 25 yrs ago when congressional hearings on "parent battering" raised public concern

Explanation for Elder Maltreatment section


Explanation for Elder Maltreatment: two models

Caregiver Stress
Power and Control


In explaining elder maltreatment, _______is related to victim dependency.

caregiver stress


The focus on the victim is clear in the definition of adult protective services as " those services provided to older people and people with disabilities who are, or are in danger of being mistreated or neglected, are unable to protect themselves and have no one to assist them"



what percentage of those over age 85 live in nursing homes.s



In contrast to the caregiver stress model, the power-control model treats elder abuse as analogous to, and often synonymous with, intimate-partner violence against women.

Contrary to the hypothesis that dependent victimss cause caregiver stress, some researchers have concluded that it is the perpetrators of abuse who are dependent on the victim rather than vice versa


Because elder maltreatment is viewed as intimate partner violence, response to it should be to protect the safety of victims and enforce the law against perps.



NEAIS data:
Caregiver stress model is supported by findings that:

1. physical abuse is rarest form of abuse and neglect is the most common form of maltreatment. Neglect can be indicative that caregiver is overwhelmed with meeting the needs of victim
2. those unable to care for themselves are overrepresented among victims of maltreatment. The power-control model stresses the abusive behavior toward competent victims
3. confusion and depression by victims could be the product of maltreatment rather than a factor contributing to caregiver stress
4. In cases of neglect, perps are more likely to be women than men, which is in accord with image of stressed caregiver.
5. Children of victims are most often identified as the perps of all forms of maltreatment. The power-control model emphasizes the role of male intimate partners in perpatrating maltreatment


NEASIS data:
findings are in accord with power-control model

1. abuse is most common among victims between 60 and 70. Victims in this age range are likely to be mentally and physically competent
2. most victims are women. women also likely to be victims of physical and emotional abuse
3. Men are more likely than women to be perps of abuse of all kinds.


Steinmetz has described the "double direction violence" as a common occurrence in cases of elder abuse.

both caretakers and elderly dependents use conflict tactics, such as screaming, yelling, hitting and slapping to control one another.


Impaired Abuser:
risk factors

1. alcohol and drug abuse
2. mental disturbances-abuser emotionally dependent as well as financially dependent on the elder.
3. elderly caregivers- caregivers who are of advanced age themselves.


Some observers distinguish between elder abuse and adult abuse.

involves maltreatment of mentally retarded or mentally ill adults.
APS agencies often provide services for adults who are not competent to mange their own affairs.


National Association of Adult Protective Service Administration defines adult protective services as

those services provided to elder people and people with disabilities who are, or are in danger of being mistreated or neglected, are unable to protect themselves, and have no one to assist them


APS agencies receive reports of maltreatment, investigate the reports and provide case planning, monitoring and evaluation. APS also provides or arranges for

law enforcment services


What state led the way in dealing with financial abuse of older persons.



who has developed training curriculum and model departmental policy statement on elder treatment

Police Executive Research Forum


what states created special units to investigate crimes against the elderly.

law enforcement agencies in
Florida, California, Illinois, Delaware


In working with older persons, interveners should not forget the general principle that intervention is a

collaborative process..restoring control to the person in crisis is always preferable to the interveners taking control of the victims life.