Depression (10 & 11) Flashcards Preview

MSII: Behavioral Science > Depression (10 & 11) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Depression (10 & 11) Deck (25)
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1

What are the DSM criteria for depression?

1- Depressed Mood
2- Diminished interest
3- Significant changes in weight
4- Insomnia or hypersomnia
5- Psychomotor agitation or retardation
6- Fatigue or loss of energy
7- Feelings or worthlessness or inappropriate guilt
8- Diminished ability to think or concentrate/ indecicive
9- Recurrent thoughts of death/ suicidal ideation

2

How many symptoms must be present and for how long, in order to Dx depression?

5 or more (out of the 9) symptoms

Present during the same 2-week period

3

T/F: at least one of the symptoms of depression is either depressed mood or loss of interest

True

4

What is used to determine if a person has "normal" sadness or is depressed?

Need to have at least 1 or the following:

1- suicidality
2- Weight loss
3- Anhedonia
4- Guilt

5

Define atypical depression:

More likely to have weight gain and hypersomnia

Can also lead to leaden paralysis, carb craving, rejection sensitivity

6

What is psuedodementia?

cognitive symptoms in depressed elderly that are often misdiagnosed as "dementia"

7

What is diurnal variation?

More depressed in AM and better in the PM

8

What are psychomotor symptoms?

Physical complaints such as body aches and headaches

9

What is seasonal affective disorder (SAD)?

Usually associated with the shorter days of winter

Usually associated with atypical symptoms

10

How is SAD treated?

Full spectrum light exposure

Psychotherapy

Antidepressants

11

Explain masked depression?

Depressed patients presenting with vague physical ailments but unaware/ in denial of their depression

seem stoic

12

What are some possible medical causes of depressive symptoms?

Hypothyroidism

Cushing's Syndrome

Anemia

Brain injury/ strokes

Vitamin deficiency (B12, Folate, Vit D)

OSA

13

Name 4 biological factors that can may lead to depression?

1- Monoamine deficiency (decreased DA, SR, NE)

2- Monoamine Receptor Excess

3- Loss of neurotrophic factors and degeneration

4- Genetic variation in serotonin transporter gene

14

Explain the receptor excess theory?

Increase transmitter and decrease receptor can lead to reversal of symptoms

15

After 4 depressive episodes...how do low genetic risk brains compare to high genetic risk brains?

They look the same

16

What is the stress- cortisl depression theory?

Stress increases glucocorticoids which decreases neurotrophic factors that leads to atrophy/ death of neurons

17

What is seen in a depressed brain upon imaging?

Hypoactive DLPFC and a hyperactive amygdala

18

T/F: Men outnumber women with depression

False...but women might seek help more often that can lead to this statistic

19

What are the Front line agents for depression?

SSRI, SNRI, NDRI

20

What are some older pharmacological treatments for depression?

MAOI, Triycic antidepressants (TCA), Sedating antidepressants, and Augmenting strategies (Lithium, thyroid hormone, atypical antipsychotic)

21

What Rx are used last for depression?

MAOI and TCA

22

Name some faster acting treatments for depression?

IV psychostimulants (ketamine)

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)--> shock treatment

23

Name 4 neurostimulation techniques:

Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS)

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (TDCS)

24

What is the fastest/ most effective method to get undepressed?

ECT shock treatment

25

What are some psychological treatments for depression?

Talk therapy, Cognitive/ Behavioral Therapy