Flashcards in Bipolar Related Disorders (5) Deck (16)
What is the DSM-5 definition for mania?
Distant, abnormal, elevated, expansive (or irritable) mood for 7 days
At least 3 symptoms must be present for 7 days:
- increased self esteem
- decreased sleep
- increased speech
- racing thoughts
- increased activity
- increased dangerous impulsivity
What does DTRHIGH stand for?
What is hypomania?
Milder mania of at least 4 days (same symptoms of mania)
How is a major depressive episode (MDE) defined?
Pervasive sad, down, or irritable mood > 2 weeks with 4 other symtoms
What is a mixed episode?
Meets criteria for both manic episode and a MDE
Define bipolar 1:
Manic or mixed episode with or without MDE
Define Bipolar 2:
Hypomanic with or without MDE
Stuck in hypomania for >2 years
Can occur with minor depressions
T/F: a bipolar individual can become psychotic (delusions, hallucinations, though disorder)
T/F: bipolar individuals spend more time in the manic phase than the depressed phase
False....they spend more time depressed
What are the etiologic factors associated with bipolar disorder?
Increased transmitter and decreased receptor (genetic cause?)
Kindling Hypothesis= too much neuronal firing in the limbic system
Can psychological factors lead to bipolar disorder?
Yes...low self esteem, negative outlook, learned helplessness, demeaning parents, stress`
What medications should NOT be used to treat bipolar disorder?
Antidepressantes...because they increase NTs which can increase mania and instability
If you are going to use an antidepressant, you must also use a mood stabilizer
What drugs are used to treat bipolar disorder?
Antipsychotics--> typical and atypical (the DA2 action decreases and prevents mania and the 5HT2 action treats depression)
Antimanic agents--> lithium, divalproex, carbamazepine
What are the actions of lithium, divalproex, and carbamazepine?
Lithium: increases Ca
Divalproex: increases GABA activity
Carbamazepine: blocks Na+ channels