Development (18) Flashcards Preview

MSII: Behavioral Science > Development (18) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Development (18) Deck (31):
1

Define premature and very premature:

Premature: before 37 wks

Very premature: before 32 wks

2

What are the components of APGAR scores:

A- Appearance (color)
P- Pulse
G- Grimace (reflex irritability)
A- Activity (msucle tone)
R- Respiration

** used to predict the likelihood of immediate survival

3

T/F the US has a high rate of premature births compared to other developed countries

True

4

What is the physiologic reason for postpartum depression?

Oxytocin- dopamine interaction associated with maternal infant bond

5

What are the different theories of development?

Chess and Thomas: temperament

Erikson: critical periods of social goals

Piaget: cognitive or learning capabilities

Mahler: Separation- individuation

Freud: parts of the body in which pleasure derived

6

What is the main focus of the development from infancy to 18 mo?

Attachment!

7

When are each of the following seen:

Social smile
Stranger anxiety
Separation anxiety

Social smile- 12 wks

Stranger anxiety- 9 months

Separation anxiety- late in 1st year (object permanence comes first)

8

Define the following reflexes:

Rooting reflex
Palmar Grasp reflex
Moro reflex
Babinski reflex

Rooting reflex: touch cheek turn toward nipple

Palmar Grasp reflex: gril any object put in palm

Moro reflex: limbs extend when child is startled

Babinski reflex: dorsiflexion of toes when the sole of the foot is stroked

9

What is the main aspect of development in the toddler years (18mo- 3 yrs)?

Rapproachement: moves away but then quickly returns for comfort

10

What type of play is seen in toddler years?

Parallel play (play next to but not reciprocal)

11

When is gender identity established?

3 years

12

What is the main aspect of development in the preschool years (3-6 yo)?

A little regression and an active fantasy life but they are aware that the imaginary friends are not real.

Also there is a strong fear of bodily injury

13

What type of play is seen at age 4?

Cooperative

14

What milestones are present at age 6/

Development of conscience (superego)

Sense of morality

Empathy

Learns lying is wrong

Understands the finality of death

15

What occurs in the school age years (7-11)?

Lifelong sense of competence, learning problems are identified, concrete operations, more complex motor tasks (sports), rule conscious, peer relationships

16

What occurs in adolescence (11- 20 yo)?

independent/ autonomy and person decision making

Changes in the brain: increased myelination, pruning of neurons, frontal and parietal lobes

17

Describe the time lines of puberty and sexual exploration:

Puberty: girls @ 10.5yrs, boys @ 11.5 yrs

First menstruation: 11-14 yrs

First ejaculation: 12-15 yrs

18

What is seen in middle adolescence?

Risk taking behavior, spending time with friends, autonomy need tor privacy

19

What is seen in late adolescence?

Identity crisus (define and refine place in the world), role confusion

20

Name some emotional and social factors that predispose to teen pregnancy?

Depression, poor school achievement, divorced parents

21

What are some challenges of early and middle adulthood?

Transition periods where individuals are vulverable to physical and emotional illnesss. Possible regression

22

T/F: close to 50% of marriages in US end in divorce.

True

23

What are the three types of child custody?

Sole custody, joint custody, and split custody

24

What happens in early adulthood?

One's role in society is defined, physical development at peak and individual is independent

25

What happens in middle adulthood?

Generativity vs stagnation, possible midlife crisis, menopause, male sex drive/ muscle changes

26

What are some of the losses of aging?

Loss of social status, loss by death of spouses/ family/ friends, decline in overall health and strength

27

What are the different types of living situations of the elderly?

Independently (most), cared for by family, assisted living, nursing homes

28

Average life expectancy in the US?

77 years

75 for men and 80 for women

29

What are the psychopathologies typically seen in the elderly?

Depression, suicide, anxiety, alcohol and substance abuse, delerium

30

Name the stages of dying?

Denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

31

Differences between normal and abnormal bereavement?

Abnormal grief intensities or persists over time instead of lessening and involves suicidal thinking or hallucinations