Flashcards in Development (18) Deck (31)
Define premature and very premature:
Premature: before 37 wks
Very premature: before 32 wks
What are the components of APGAR scores:
A- Appearance (color)
G- Grimace (reflex irritability)
A- Activity (msucle tone)
** used to predict the likelihood of immediate survival
T/F the US has a high rate of premature births compared to other developed countries
What is the physiologic reason for postpartum depression?
Oxytocin- dopamine interaction associated with maternal infant bond
What are the different theories of development?
Chess and Thomas: temperament
Erikson: critical periods of social goals
Piaget: cognitive or learning capabilities
Mahler: Separation- individuation
Freud: parts of the body in which pleasure derived
What is the main focus of the development from infancy to 18 mo?
When are each of the following seen:
Social smile- 12 wks
Stranger anxiety- 9 months
Separation anxiety- late in 1st year (object permanence comes first)
Define the following reflexes:
Palmar Grasp reflex
Rooting reflex: touch cheek turn toward nipple
Palmar Grasp reflex: gril any object put in palm
Moro reflex: limbs extend when child is startled
Babinski reflex: dorsiflexion of toes when the sole of the foot is stroked
What is the main aspect of development in the toddler years (18mo- 3 yrs)?
Rapproachement: moves away but then quickly returns for comfort
What type of play is seen in toddler years?
Parallel play (play next to but not reciprocal)
When is gender identity established?
What is the main aspect of development in the preschool years (3-6 yo)?
A little regression and an active fantasy life but they are aware that the imaginary friends are not real.
Also there is a strong fear of bodily injury
What type of play is seen at age 4?
What milestones are present at age 6/
Development of conscience (superego)
Sense of morality
Learns lying is wrong
Understands the finality of death
What occurs in the school age years (7-11)?
Lifelong sense of competence, learning problems are identified, concrete operations, more complex motor tasks (sports), rule conscious, peer relationships
What occurs in adolescence (11- 20 yo)?
independent/ autonomy and person decision making
Changes in the brain: increased myelination, pruning of neurons, frontal and parietal lobes
Describe the time lines of puberty and sexual exploration:
Puberty: girls @ 10.5yrs, boys @ 11.5 yrs
First menstruation: 11-14 yrs
First ejaculation: 12-15 yrs
What is seen in middle adolescence?
Risk taking behavior, spending time with friends, autonomy need tor privacy
What is seen in late adolescence?
Identity crisus (define and refine place in the world), role confusion
Name some emotional and social factors that predispose to teen pregnancy?
Depression, poor school achievement, divorced parents
What are some challenges of early and middle adulthood?
Transition periods where individuals are vulverable to physical and emotional illnesss. Possible regression
T/F: close to 50% of marriages in US end in divorce.
What are the three types of child custody?
Sole custody, joint custody, and split custody
What happens in early adulthood?
One's role in society is defined, physical development at peak and individual is independent
What happens in middle adulthood?
Generativity vs stagnation, possible midlife crisis, menopause, male sex drive/ muscle changes
What are some of the losses of aging?
Loss of social status, loss by death of spouses/ family/ friends, decline in overall health and strength
What are the different types of living situations of the elderly?
Independently (most), cared for by family, assisted living, nursing homes
Average life expectancy in the US?
75 for men and 80 for women
What are the psychopathologies typically seen in the elderly?
Depression, suicide, anxiety, alcohol and substance abuse, delerium