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Flashcards in Developmental Psychology Deck (145)
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1

What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative theories of developmental change?

Qualitative developmental theories see development as discontinuous, with there being specific times of significant developmental growth and change. According to qualitative theorists, if you don't master a stage-specific issue, you become at risk of future developmental failures. Quantitative theorists view development as continuous and gradual. The only difference between children and adult abilities is the amount of things they are able to do. There are no qualitative differences.

2

Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Approach proposes which 5 systems?

Microsystem
Mesosystem
Exosystem
Macrosystem
Chronosystem

3

Which approach proposes the following 5 systems:
Microsystem
Mesosystem
Exosystem
Macrosystem
Chronosystem

Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Approach

4

Microsystem

Bidirectional relationships caused by everyday encounters

5

Mesosystem

Links between mesosystems

6

Exosystem

Relationship between a setting that influences a person in the microsystem

7

Macrosystem

Culture
Economy
Politics

8

Chronosystem

Passage of Time

9

What is the difference between a critical period and a sensitive period?

A critical period requires that something occur during that time, or it will never occur. A sensitive period is a time in which something will have the greatest impact if it occurs, but can still occur at other times.

10

How many pairs of chromosomes does everybody have?

23

11

How many pairs of autosomes does a person have?

22

12

Genotype

What exists in a person's genes

13

Phenotype

The observable part of a person's genes

14

What are some examples of autosomal abnormalities?

Down's Syndrome
PKU
Hemophilia
Sickle Cell Anemia
Klinefelter's
Turner's Syndrome

15

Trisomy 21

Down's Syndrome

16

Hemophilia occurs most commonly in which sex?

Males

17

Sickle Cell Anemia occurs most commonly in what group?

African Americans

18

Klinefelter's

XXY
Only occurs in men

19

Turner's Syndrome

XO
Only occurs in women

20

What are the 3 stages of pre-natal development?

Germinal Stage
Embryonic Period
Fetal Period

21

During which pre-natal stage is a child most vulnerable to teratogens?

Embryonic Period

22

What are some inborn reflexes?

Moro Reflex
Rooting Reflex
Babinski Reflex
Grasping Reflex

23

Which sense is least developed at birth?

Vision

24

At what age is a child most likely to begin standing independently?

11 months

25

At what age is an infant most likely to take their first steps?

11-13 months

26

At what age does a child usually learn to walk up stairs?

16 months

27

At what age is a child most likely to be successful potty training?

After 24 months

28

Plasticity

Flexibility in Brain Functioning

29

What is the brain most plastic?

Before age 7 or 8

30

How can early puberty affect children?

Girls who mature earlier have lower self-esteem and more parental conflict. Boys who mature earlier have better academic adjustment. These differences even out around age 18.