Flashcards in Social Psychology Deck (87)
Heider's Theory of Attributions focused on what two areas?
Which theorist developed the idea of dispositional vs. situational attributions?
What were Kelly's 3 considerations of attributions?
Who theorized that consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus were relevant to attributions?
According to Kelly, internal attributions are made when?
According to Kelly, when are external attributions made?
Weiner proposed what four categories of attributions?
Internal-Stable, Internal-Unstable, External-Stable, and External-Unstable are the categories of attributions coined by whom?
What types of attributions are made in learned helplessness?
Internal, Stable, and Global
What type of people have the most accurate appraisals of situations?
What is the fundamental attribution error?
Failure of others is attributed to internal dispositional factors
What is the term for when we attribute the failure of others to internal dispositional factors?
Fundamental Attribution Error
What is the actor/observer bias?
You and someone else do the same wrong behavior. When you do it you blame is on external factors. When the other person does it you blame it on internal factors.
What is the self-serving bias?
When we succeed we believe it's due to internal factors, but when we fail we blame it on external factors.
What is the availability heuristic?
We estimate how likely something is to happen based on information available to us and how easily we can remember it
What is the simulation heuristic?
when people imagine things, they come to believe them
Who created personal construct theory?
What is personal construct theory?
We perceive things based on what we expect to see
What is an attitude?
A predisposition to respond to a particular situation/stimulus in a particular way
What are the 3 components of attitudes?
What is consistency theory?
We try to impose structure and order. When things are inconsistent or out of balance, we have to change something.
What is Cognitive Dissonance Theory?
We are going to change our attitudes we we feel bad feelings associated with inconsistency between our thoughts and behaviors.
What is balance theory?
If two people have an attitude towards the same object/activity, there is balance when there are 3 positive or 1 positive and two negatives.
What is symmetry theory?
The stronger the bond between two people, the stronger the imbalance of balance theory is felt.
What is congruity theory?
If you like someone, either your view of your friend or the item of opposition will change based on which you feel more strongly about?
What is post-decisional dissonance?
When there are two good choices, you feel disappointed about the one you didn't choose.
How will you reduce post-decisional dissonance?
Emphasize the benefits of the selected choice
What is effort justification?
When a person spends a lot of time on something that doesn't turn out to be worthwhile, they will emphasize the good about the experience
What is insufficient justification?
When someone does something undesirable for very little reward they will emphasize the good about what was done.