Flashcards in Industrial/Organizational Psychology Deck (164)
What was the result of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act?
Employers can no longer discriminate against employees or potential employees on the basis of a protected status.
What are the Uniform Guidelines of Employee Selection?
A test that adversely affects hiring, promotion, or selection of applicants constitutes discrimination. (However, you can still use the test if the test has been validated as useful, but no alternatives are available)
What was the result of Griggs v. Duke Power Company?
Tests of general broad abilities, specifically those in which minorities pass at much lower rates than Whites, are unfair for employment and promotion. Any tests used for hiring must be specific for the job skills needed.
What is Adverse Impact?
Based on the 4/5 Concept or 80% rule.
Using the 80% rule, if 20/100 White applicants are hired, how many Black Applicants would need to be hired to not be adversely impacted?
At least 16% of the total number of Black Applicants (so if there were 10 Black Applicants, 2 would need to be hired).
What is unfairness?
Unfairness occurs when two group score similarly on a criterion, but differently on a predictor test. If this predictor test is used to choose applicants, the minority will appear lower and be less likely to be chosen based on the predictor cutoff. However, they are likely to perform just as well on the criterion, even though the test does not show this.
The validity of the test is different for different groups. This means the predictor does not predict the criterion in the same manner for all individuals. It's likely to lead to unfairness.
If a test has parallel regression lines for different groups, the test can be said to have ____________.
What is job analysis?
Gathering information about the job, including necessary tasks, skills, tools, and education needed to perform the job successfully.
Why is job analysis done?
To determine hiring criteria, training issues, and provide feedback about job performance.
What is the critical incident technique?
A systematic approach at looking at what leads to successful vs. unsuccessful outcomes on the job
The critical incident technique is a part of what?
What is a job evaluation?
Figuring out how much money a job is worth to the organization.
What are some methods of employee selection?
Biodata, Interviews, Assessment Centers, and References/Letters of Recommendation
What is biodata?
It includes biographical information including education and employment history.
What is the difference between a standard and a weighted application?
When applications are weighted, some information is given more weight than others when making decisions.
What is the Biographical Information Blank?
It covers an applicants life history in greater detail. It includes items correlated with successful job outcomes. They are excellent predictors of job success and good predictors of job turnover. However, they're not widely used, because of how cumbersome they are.
What employee selection technique is considered least valid?
What can be done to add to the validity of interviews?
Making interviews structured, having multiple interviewers, and training interviewers
What is the First Impression Bias?
The tendency for the initial impression of a candidate to remain throughout the interview.
What is the Negative Information Bias?
The tendency for one or two small pieces of negative information to cause you to overlook the positive.
What is the Contrast Effect?
When you rate the person you're interviewing in comparison to the person who interviewed directly before them.
What is the Halo Effect?
When we generalize traits based on one characteristic. Can be positive or negative. The most common halo affect is that of attractiveness.
What are assessment centers?
They are simulated testing. You put potential job applicants into a simulated job situation and observe and evaluate them. This process allowed you to obtain a work sample, but it time consuming and complicated. It's generally only used by upper level management. It has excellent criterion validity.
What are two examples of tasks used in assessment centers?
The In Basket Technique and the Leaderless Group Discussion
What are some types of tests used for personnel selection?
Wonderlick Personnel Test, Aptitute tests, Personality Tests, Interests Tests, Work Sample Tests, Test Batteries
What are the 3 different approaches for employee selection?
Multiple Regression Approach
Multiple Cut-Off Approach
What is the Multiple Regression Approach to employee selection?
A multiple regression equation is used to make a decision based on multiple predictors. This approach is compensatory, because a low score in a one area can be compensated for by a high score in another area.
What does it mean if a test in compensatory?
Low scores and high scores can balance each other out