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Flashcards in D.h. Kap Zus 9 Deck (7)
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Reflexive pronouns

Ich- mich/mir

Du- dich/dir

Er/sie/es- sich

Wir- uns

Ihr- euch

Sie/sie- sich

1

Use of reflexive pronoun (when acc. or dat.)

Dat.- 1. When there is a direct object
2. When there is a dative preposition
3. When there is a dative verb

Acc.- with an accusative preposition

2

Definitive articles with parts of the body

In referring to parts of the body, German often uses a definitive article and a dative pronoun.

3

Infinitives with 'zu'

Dependent infinitives used with most verbs are preceded by zu. Dependent infinitives used with modals are not preceded by zu.

Infinitives with zu are also used after a large number of expressions. Ex.- Sie hat keine Zeit..., es ist schwer...

When a separable prefix is in the infinitive form, the zu comes between the prefix and the base form of the verb.

4

Um... Zu + infinitive construction

The German construction 'um...zu + infinitive' is equivalent to the English construction '(in order) to + infinitive.' A comma is required to set off an 'um...zu' construction.

5

Comparative and superlatives forms of adjectives and adverbs

German forms the comparative by adding the suffix -er to the base form. It forms the superlatives by adding the suffix -st to the base form. The ending -est is added to the words ending in -d (gesüntest-), -t (leichtest-), or a sibilant (kürzest-).

Alt/älter/ältest-
Groß/großer/großt-
Jung/jünger/jüngst-
Gern/lieber/liebst-
Gut/besser/best-
Hoch/höher/höchst-
Viel/mehr/meist-

Many one-syllable adjectives and adverbs with stem vowel a, o, or u add an umlaut in the comparative and superlative.

6

Special comparison constructions and uses

In German, the construction so...wie (as...as) is used to make comparisons of equality.

The comparative form of an adjective or adverb is used to make comparisons of inequality. Als is equivalent of English 'than.'

The pattern am+ superlative with the ending -en is used for adverbs, and for predicate adjectives. The superlative of attributive adjectives, with a noun that is expressed or understood, is preceded by the article der/das/die. The superlative form of the adjective, therefore, has an ending.