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Flashcards in Kap 6 Zus. Deck (7)
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Present perfect tense

Made up of present tense of either 'sein' or 'haben' as auxiliary verb and the past participle.


P.P. Regular weak verbs

Ge + stem + t (et)

Sagen- gesagt
Arbeiten- gearbeitet
Baden- gebadet
Regnen- geregnet


PP. Irregular weak verbs

Ge + (changed stem) + t (et)

Bringen- gebracht
Denken- gedacht
Kennen- gekannt
Wissen- gewusst


PP of strong verbs

PPs of strong verbs end in -en (except getan). Most strong verbs also add ge- in PP. They usually have stems that change from the infinitive stem.

Nehmen- genommen
Essen- gegessen
Tun- getan


PPs without ge- prefix

Verbs ending in -ieren do not have the prefix ge- in PP. They are always weak verbs whose PP ends in -t.

Studieren- studiert
Reparieren- repariert

Some prefixes never separate from the verb stem: be-, emp-, ent-, er-, ge-, ver-, and zer-. Just add -t to stem to form PP.


Use of PP in in dependent clauses

In a dependent clause, the auxiliary verb haben or sein follows the past participle and is the last element in the clause, because it is the finite verb.

Kevin sagt, dass David ihm eine Karte geschrieben hat.

Er sagt, dass David nach Österreich gefahren ist.


Auxiliary verb use (haben & sein)

Haben is used when there is a direct object.

Sein is used as auxiliary for intransitive verbs (verbs that have no direct object) when the verb shows motion to or from a place or denotes a change in condition. (Sein, bleiben, and werden use sein as auxiliary.)