Flashcards in DIABETES MELLITUS Deck (14)
What is the pancreatic islet?
hormone producing area among the pacreatic cells that produce pancreatic digestive juices
Where are pancreatic islets more abundant?
in the tail of the pancreas
What are the 4 types of hormone secreting (endocrine) cells in the Islets of Langerhans?
-alpha cells - glucagon
-Beta cells - insulin and amylin
-Delta cells - somatostatin
-F cells - pancreatic polypeptide
Where is glucagon released from?
pancreatic alpha cells and gut in response to low blood glucose levels, protein ingestion, and exercise
Glucagon increases blood glucose by stimulating what 3 things?
1. glycogenolysis : breakdown of glycogen into glucose
2. gluconeogenesis: formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate molecules
3. Ketogenesis: breakdown of fatty acids to ketone bodies
What is the principal regulator of metabolism and storage of ingested carbohydrates, fats, and proteins?
What does insulin facilitate the transport of?
-facilitates glucose transport into cells
-transports amino acids across muscle membranes, and the synthesis of amino acids into protein in the peripheral tissues
What parts of the body are not dependent on insulin for glucose uptake?
brain, nerves, lens of eye, hepatocytes, erythrocytes
Explain the key explanation?
insulin is the key that unlocks glucose, if there is no insulin then the glucose will stay in the blood. The glucose will not leave the bloodstream cross the cell membrane and to the cytoplasm of the cell.
What is the major stimulus for insulin synthesis and secretion?
an increased blood glucose level
What usually inhibits insulin secretions?
low blood glucose levels (glucagon, somatostatin, hypokalemia, catecholamines)
This is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by increased levels of glucose in the blood resulting from defects in insulin secretion, action, or both.
DM is the leading cause of what 3 diseases?
end-stage renal disease
nontraumatic lower limb amputations