Flashcards in DM part 7 Deck (12)
What is Afrezza? When should it be administered? What is it used in combination with long acting insulin? What are some common adverse reaction and what is it not recommended for?
-rapid acting inhaled insulin
-administered at the beginning of each meal or within 20 minutes after starting a meal
-used in combo with long acting insulin
-adverse reactions: hypoglycemia, cough, throat pain, or irritation
-not recommended for treatment of DKA
What should we teach patients about when to test?
-how to test, use, and calibrate meter
-When to test: before meals, two hours after first bite, every 4 hours during illness, before and after exercise
What are the S and S of hypoglycemia?
fast heartbeat (tachycardia)
(because of the release of epinephrine)
What are the S and S of hyperglycemia?
need to urinate often
slow healing wounds
What are 3 ways hypo and hyperglycemia are the same?
What is hypoglycemia?
-too much insulin in proportion to glucose in the blood
-blood glucose level <70 mg/dL
-can be mild, moderate, or severe
What are the symptoms associated witht he altered mental function of hypoglycemia?
-difficulty speaking/ slurred speech
-inability to concentrate
-memory lapses, confusion
(this can seem like alcohol intoxication)
-this can lead to loss of consciousness, seizures, coma, and death
What is hypoglycemia unawareness?
a condition where there are no warning signs/symptoms until glucose is critically low
-related to autonomic neuropathy and lack of counterregulatory hormones
-patients at risk should keep blood glucose levels somewhat higher
What are the causes of hypoglycemia?
too much insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents
-too little food
-delaying time of eating
-too much exercise
-if high levels of glucose fall too rapidly
When should you begin treatment of hypoglycemia?
-if <70 begin treatment
-if patient has manifestations or history of fluctuating glucose hypoglycemia should be assumed.
What is the treatment of hypoglycemia?
-rule of 15
-consume 15 g of simple carbohydrates (fruit juice or regular soft drink 4-6 oz)
-recheck glucose in 15 minutes
-repeat if still less than 70
-avoid foods with fat (decreases absorption of sugar)
-give complex carbs after recovery