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Flashcards in DM part 2 Deck (14)
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1

What do current theories link DM to?

genetic
autoimmune
environmental (viruses and obesity)

2

Regardless of its cause what is DM primarily a disorder of?

glucose metabolism related to absent or insufficient insulin supply and/or poor utilization of the insulin that is available

3

What are 6 causes of diabetes?

infection
genetic
obesity
abnormal functioning of pancreas
abnormal liver functioning
food and lifestyle

4

Explain normal glucose and insulin metabolism.

-insulin is produced by beta cells in islets of langerhans
-insulin released continuously into bloodstream in small increments with larger amounts released after food
-insulin lowers blood glucose to make a stable glucose range of 70-110

5

What is the daily amount of insulin secreted by an adult?

40-50 U

6

When does insulin secretion normally rise rapidly?

1 to 2 hours after meals

7

After carbohydrate absorption form the GI is complete and during the night what happens to insulin?

insulin concentrations are low and constant
-with a slight increase at dawn

8

What does the rise in plasma insulin after meals inhibit?

-gluconeogenesis
-enhances fat deposition of adipose tissue
-increases protein synthesis
-this is why insulin is an anabolic or storage hormone

9

What does the fall in insulin level during normal overnight fasting facilitate?

the release of stored glucose from the liver, protein from muscle, and fat from adipose tissues

10

What promotes glucose transport form the bloodstream across the cell membrane to the cytoplasm of the cell.

insulin

11

What do cells break down glucose to make?

energy

12

What do liver and muscle cells store?

excess glucose as glycogen

13

What does increased insulin do?

-inhibits gluconeogenesis
-enhances fat deposition
-increases protein synthesis

14

What does decreased insulin do?

-releases glucose from the liver
-protein from muscle
-fat from adipose tissue