Flashcards in DM part 4 Deck (15)
What is T2DM formerly known as?
adult-onset or non-insulin dependent
What is the most prevalent type of DM?
What are some risk factors for T2DM?
Why is there an increase in prevalence of children?
due to obesity
What ethnic populations have a greater prevalence of T2DM?
other pacific islanders
With T2DM the pancreas continues to produce some endogenous (self made) insulin but what two things are happening?
-not enough insulin is produced
the body does not use the insulin efficiently
What is the biggest difference between T1DM and T2DM?
T1DM has to have endogenous insulin
What are the 5 ways T2DM is genetically linked?
1. insulin resistance
2. decreased insulin production by pancreas
3. inappropriate hepatic glucose production
4. altered production of hormones and cytokines by adipose tissue (adipokines)
5. research continues on role of brain, kidneys, and gut in type 2 diabetes
For T2DM (Genetic link) there is an insulin resistance for what reason?
because insulin receptors are unresponsive to the action of insulin and/or insufficient in number
Where are most insulin receptors located?
when insulin is not properly used the entry of glucose into the cell is impeded. What does this result in?
the entry of glucose into the cell is impeded resulting in hyperglycemia
What is metabolic syndrome and what does it increase the chance of?
Metabolic syndrome: elevated glucose, abdominal obesity, elevated BP, high levels of triglycerides , and decreased levels of HDL's
-a person with 3 or more of these are considered to have metabolic syndrome
-metabolic syndrome increases the risk for T2DM
What does the onset of T2DM look like?
-hyperglycemia may go on for years without being detected
-often discovered with routine laboratory testing
, the average person has had diabetes for 6.5 years by the time they discover it
What are the clinical manifestations of T1DM?